good ones acquired and
established, before we can have any dependence on a steady, uniform
rectitude of conduct. For this purpose I therefore contrived the
 Compare Philippians iv, 8.
In the various enumerations of the moral virtues I had met with in my
reading, I found the catalogue more or less numerous, as different
writers included more or fewer ideas under the same name. Temperance,
for example, was by some confined to eating and drinking, while by
others it was extended to mean the moderating every other pleasure,
appetite, inclination, or passion, bodily or mental, even to our
avarice and ambition. I propos'd to myself, for the sake of clearness,
to use rather more names, with fewer ideas annex'd to each, than a few
names with more ideas; and I included under thirteen names of virtues
all that at that time occurr'd to me as necessary or desirable, and
annexed to each a short precept, which fully express'd the extent I
gave to its meaning.
These names of virtues, with their precepts, were:
Eat not to dullness; drink not to elevation.
Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself; avoid trifling
Let all your things have their places; let each part of your business
have its time.
Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what you
Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself; _i. e._, waste
Lose no time; be always employ'd in something useful; cut off all
Use no hurtful deceit; think innocently and justly; and, if you speak,
Wrong none by doing injuries, or omitting the benefits that are your
Avoid extreams; forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they
Tolerate no uncleanliness in body, cloaths, or habitation.
Be not disturbed at trifles, or at accidents common or unavoidable.
Imitate Jesus and Socrates.
My intention being to acquire the _habitude_ of all these virtues, I
judg'd it would be well not to distract my attention by attempting the
whole at once, but to fix it on one of them at a time; and, when I
should be master of that, then to proceed to another, and so on, till
I should have gone thro' the thirteen; and, as the previous
acquisition of some might facilitate the acquisition of certain
others, I arrang'd them with that view, as they stand above.
Temperance first, as it tends to procure that coolness and clearness
of head, which is so necessary where constant vigilance was to be kept
up, and guard maintained
by Fahrenheit's thermometer; with other remarks made on board the Reprisal, Capt.Page 86
Is not the finding of great quantities of shells and bones of animals (natural to hot climates) in the cold ones of our present world, some proof that its poles have been changed? Is not the supposition that the poles have been changed, the easiest way of accounting for the deluge, by getting rid of the old difficulty how to dispose of its waters after it was over? Since if the poles were again to be changed, and placed in the present equator, the sea would fall there about fifteen miles in height, and rise as much in the present polar regions; and the effect would be proportionable if the new poles were placed any where between the present and the equator.Page 122
It is true that in the case stated, the resistance given by the air between those lines to the motion of the sail is not apparent to the eye, because the greater force of the wind, which strikes it in the direction EEE, overpowers its effect, and keeps the sail full in the curve a, a, a, a, a.Page 126
There is no doubt that the force of the descending water would have a considerable effect, greater in proportion to the height from which it descended; but then it is to be considered, that every bucket-full pumped or dipped up into the boat, from its side or through its bottom, must have its _vis inertiÃ¦_ overcome so as to receive the motion of the boat, before it can come to give motion by its descent; and that will be a deduction from the moving power.Page 203
A simple experiment or two may serve to give more correct ideas.Page 207
It appearing plainly, then, that some of the outward air must be admitted, the question will be, how much is _absolutely necessary_; for you would avoid admitting more, as being contrary to one of your intentions in having a fire, viz.Page 215
) A is.Page 251
A string of strong cartridge paper (over-lapping a little at its joints) is regularly tacked down upon the sheeting, under the copper covering, as the work proceeds from eaves to ridge.Page 260
_Respecting the best Mediums for conveying Sound.Page 266
I think too, that if you had given it to some country girl in the heart of the Massachusets, who has never heard any other than psalm tunes, or _Chevy Chace_, the _Children in the Wood_, the _Spanish Lady_, and such old simple ditties, but has naturally a good ear, she might more probably have made a pleasing popular tune for you, than any of our masters here, and more proper for your purpose, which would best be answered, if every word could as it is sung be understood by all that hear it, and if the emphasis you intend for particular words could be given by the singer as well as by the reader; much of the force and impression of the song depending on those circumstances.Page 283
_ _KensiÅtÅ³n, SeptembÅ³r_ 26, 1768.Page 319
--Just the same thing to a tittle.Page 329
_ By the original law of nations, war and extirpation were the punishment of injury.Page 349
this defect of, remedied, 168.Page 392
whether confined to, or generated in, clouds, 57.