Benjamin Franklin Representative selections, with introduction, bibliograpy, and notes

By Benjamin Franklin

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Transcriber's Notes:

1. Passages in italics are surrounded by _underscores_

...

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...Pochmann, Mississippi State College_

HENRY JAMES, _Lyon Richardson, Western Reserve University_

ABRAHAM LINCOLN

*HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW, _Odell Shepard,...

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... MOTT AND JORGENSON'S FRANKLIN
...

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...Franklin's mind, from youth
to old age, in its comprehensive interests--educational, literary,
journalistic, economic, political, scientific, humanitarian,...

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... ...

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... ...

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... ...

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...(1730), ...

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...Trimmers (1743), ...

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... 198
Proposals Relating to the Education...

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... ...

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... ...

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... On the Labouring Poor (1768), ...

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... ...

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... ...

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... 412
The Lord's Prayer (1779?), ...

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... ...

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... ...

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... ...

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...A Petition of the Left Hand (date unknown), ...

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...paid to other
factors. And therefore it is necessary to begin with a brief survey of
the...

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...thus man desires to effect a correspondingly
harmonious inner heaven; (5) and feels assured of the...

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...ground
for either primitivism or a theory of progress."[i-10] In addition, his
social compact theory, augmenting seventeenth-century...

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...species.[i-17]

Even as Voltaire had his liberal tendencies stoutly reinforced by
contact with English rationalism and deism,[i-18]...

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...tyrannical forms of
kings and priests. Calvin's forlorn and depraved man became a creature
naturally compassionate. If...

Page 25

...complex factors.

Reinforcing Edwards's Great Awakening, George Whitefield, especially in
the Middle Colonies, challenged the growing complacence...

Page 26

...is everywhere so conspicuous, that there can
be nothing more monstrous than to deny the God...

Page 27

...a copy of
the _Optics_, presented by Newton himself. After the schism of 1715/6
the collection was...

Page 28

... By Newton's help, 'tis evidently seen
Attraction governs all the...

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...Calvinism, convinced that "The love
of God is a calm and rational thing, the result of...

Page 30

...at the stars."
It should be remembered, however, that this tendency among Puritan
clergy to call science...

Page 31

...rapturous assiduity."[i-81] Mather in his
_Essays to do Good_ proposed:

That a proper...

Page 32

...all were to engage the minds of this
assiduously curious club. Above all, the members must...

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...Evelyn, Abridgement
of Philosophical Transactions, 'sGravesande's _Natural Philosophy_,
Homer's _Odyssey_ and _Iliad_, Bayle's _Critical Dictionary_, and
Dryden's _Virgil_....

Page 34

...Company was one of
the factors in the formation of the scientific society may be inferred
from...

Page 35

...habitable and less terrifying.
The ideals of scientific research and disinterestedness were dramatized
picturesquely by the Tradesman...

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...and correctness.
(These plans he more fully expressed in his _Idea of the English
School_, published in...

Page 37

...of mankind.

Essentially classical in morality, extolling a temperance like that of
Xenophon, Epictetus, Cicero, Socrates, and...

Page 38

...In
the _Autobiography_ he recalls that he read books in "polemic divinity,"
Plutarch's _Lives_ (probably Dryden's translation),...

Page 39

...to what degree Franklin at this time, on reading
_Spectator_ No. 160, "On Geniuses" (warning against...

Page 40

...and that which is universally valid and recognized
by all men, and that art which is...

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...discourse "as near as possible to the spoken."[i-138] In 1753 he
observed: "If my Hypothesis [concerning...

Page 42

...will be
remembered, sought to express _la connaissance de l'homme en general_.
With no aspirations to become...

Page 43

...men of science may have helped to motivate Franklin's
prose style, and to what degree his...

Page 44

...of the machine and printed off
several sheets. Then the American ambassador smiled at the gaping
printers...

Page 45

...the other colonial printers may be
stated thus: Franklin maintained a high average of workmanlike (though
not...

Page 46

...of a lower sort than he could fully
approve in order to float editions of more...

Page 47

...but in a pamphlet, _Plain Truth_, issued just before his
retirement from editorial duties.

Two common misconceptions...

Page 48

...a colonial has,
indeed, claims to being America's pioneer economist.

Franklin's hatred of negro slavery was conditioned...

Page 49

...any equivalent
Benefit, is dangerous to their very Existence.[i-187]

Franklin's view of the...

Page 50

...1728 and
was probably the most widely read work on paper currency that appeared
in colonial America."[i-197]...

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...Pennsylvania assembly,
Franklin had successfully sponsored issues of paper money; in London,
following the 1764 act, he...

Page 52

...a depreciating
Currency."[i-211] There is no evidence to show that Franklin dissented
from the conservative prohibition in...

Page 53

...advanced in the science of politics, who knows the full
force of...

Page 54

...Before attempting to appraise the real indebtedness
of Franklin to the physiocrats, it is well to...

Page 55

...in consuming
foodstuffs, et cetera, but it was argued that this prudential asceticism
was not a characteristic...

Page 56

...Then with a suggestion of
philosophic generalization he hoped that "In time perhaps Mankind may be
wise...

Page 57

...Franklin's
adoration of a Deity who is the creator and sustainer of immutable,
universal physical laws which...

Page 58

...the Quaker conscience which checks military activity,
Franklin could not, however, condone its virtually prohibiting others
from...

Page 59

...obviously necessary, could have been
considered so illiberally subversive of the government. By 1747 Franklin
had read...

Page 60

...the Mother Country might
not so soon have happened."[i-264] The sending of British regulars to
America and...

Page 61

...than the Declaration of Independence; and of it John
Adams remarked: "There is not an idea...

Page 62

...achieved between
the governor and the governed. If laws are fabricated which contravene
these, the governed have...

Page 63

...its charter responsibilities and granting the
colonists what they considered to be inviolable rights. By 1758...

Page 64

...lands was less than that right he
had already envisioned--the right to become a royal colony.[i-292]

But...

Page 65

...Thoughts
on the Present Situation of Our Public Affairs_ (1764) he set up a
sturdy antagonism between...

Page 66

...of unruly schoolboys. Conservative in his omission of any appeal to
"natural rights," he was radical...

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...was."[i-312]

By 1774 Franklin had discovered the futility of his imperialistic
illusions: ministries, fearing the siren colonies,...

Page 68

... Ye who blindly seek more liberty,
...

Page 69

...of a radical nature in as far as the populace were
given greater liberties and responsibilities...

Page 70

...or Voltaire,"[i-334] it was to be a difficult task to
manipulate a Beaumarchais, a Vergennes, and...

Page 71

...against the "collected passions, prejudices, and private
interests" of collective legislative bodies.[i-346] He wrote to Caleb
Whitefoord:...

Page 72

...subsisting
under the authority of the union.")[i-353]

This is anything but the corollary...

Page 73

...enlightened men there, but discourage
the common people from removing to this...

Page 74

...view
are in part the result of his hatred of proprietary abuses which he
witnessed as a...

Page 75

...he had sought to have the Stamp Act
rescinded) that he had to "take away entirely"...

Page 76

...a collection of facts, and
concludes no farther than those facts will warrant."[i-381] In 1782 he
wrote...

Page 77

...adolescence, felt the impacts of the age of reason.
Scholars before and since M. M. Curtis...

Page 78

...papers, _The
Guardian_, _Art of Thinking_ [Du Port Royal], _The Tale of a Tub_, and
the writings...

Page 79

...by books and languages, are liable to the common and
natural obscurities...

Page 80

...a youth too much at ease in Zion, he did not lose
substantial (if then a...

Page 81

...syllogistic gymnastics offered in proof of Deity
since "much more may those greater motions we see...

Page 82

...that is, it meets with nothing to
hinder its Fall, but at the same Time it...

Page 83

...the
_Principia_ but from secondary sources. There is no reason to apologize
for Franklin on this score...

Page 84

..."Wise and Good God, who is the author and owner of our
System." It is conventional...

Page 85

...edifice
or machine, counsel, design, and direction to an end
...

Page 86

...the superficial and embryonic metaphysics, succeeds better in
making himself at home in his world. To...

Page 87

...nature's God,"[i-462]
discovering in her bastard children the Deity's "divine skill and
admirable workmanship in the formation...

Page 88

...friend: "I find that you grow more and more famous in the
learned world. As you...

Page 89

...untrustworthy in light of his diffident attitude
toward church attendance, even toward scriptures, as it may...

Page 90

...freeing man "from vain Terrors."[i-487] To
Condorcet, his friend and disciple, Franklin was one who "was...

Page 91

...statesman, a man of letters, a
scientist, he had embraced scientific deism, primarily impelled by
Newtonianism. We...

Page 92

...C. Becker, _The
Declaration of Independence_, especially chap. II, and _The Heavenly
City of the Eighteenth-Century Philosophers_;...

Page 93

...Eighteenth Century_,
13.

[i-13] See J. B. Bury, _The Idea of Progress_, chap. VIII; and J.
Morley, _Diderot...

Page 94

...Riley, Koch, Gohdes, Morais, in Bibliography, pp. cli ff., below.

[i-24] Fiske, _op. cit._, 124.

[i-25] F....

Page 95

...of Science in Paris, the works of Boyle and Newton, "with a
great variety of other...

Page 96

...his
exposure during his formative years to American Puritanism.

[i-76] _The Writings of Benjamin Franklin_, ed. by...

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...81-6.
The ablest survey is G. M. Abbot's _A Short History of the Library
Company of Philadelphia_....

Page 98

...their divine Original, who is the unexhausted Source,
the glorious Fountain of all Perfection ..." (_ibid._,...

Page 99

...the relatively modern curriculum should be given more abundantly
to Smith than to Franklin.

[i-108] _Writings_, II,...

Page 100

...For Bunyan's literary ideals, see the prefaces to
his works, especially that to _Grace Abounding_. The...

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...38-9).

[i-142] Quoted in Bruce, _op. cit._, II, 439. Also see his letters to
Noah Webster, _Writings_,...

Page 102

...No. VII and his
estimate of Cowper (characterized by easiness in manner, correctness
in language, clarity of...

Page 103

...Printers and Printing_ (London, 1839),
714 note.

[i-168] R. A. Austen Leigh, "William Strahan and His Ledgers,"...

Page 104

...the "detestable commerce" motivated in part by
English "laws for promoting the Guinea trade" (_Writings_, V,...

Page 105

...later all the plantations were deeply
involved in the mazes of a fluctuating currency, for the...

Page 106

...years, it seems reasonable to infer that he was
beholden to Franklin for the suggestion. It...

Page 107

...is "partly" Franklin's "own composition" (Carey,
_op. cit._, 161).

[i-219] Philadelphia, Sept. 13, 1775: MS letter (unpublished)...

Page 108

...collection
in sparse settlements.

[i-232] _Writings_, II, 313 (July 16, 1747). See also _Note Respecting
Trade and Manufactures_,...

Page 109

...would have been at least a
lesser Adam Smith. Mr. Wetzel, in _Benjamin Franklin as an...

Page 110

...E. Merriam states that "The storm centre
of the democratic movement during the colonial period was...

Page 111

..._Idea of the English School_ (III, 28).
He is supposed to have defended in spirited debate...

Page 112

...of many colonial ferments, not unlike the one we have
considered above, Carl Becker writes: "Throughout...

Page 113

...of French desire to
separate the colonies from England (V, 47, 231, 254, 323). The
printing of...

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...(Lincoln, _op. cit._, 282; see also 283). The
American Philosophical Society, of which Franklin was president,
declared...

Page 115

...Rise of Liberalism_, 79-81
and _passim_.

[i-340] _Ibid._, 222.

[i-341] Cited in W. T. Franklin's edition, I, 303-4....

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...to Beccaria in 1773
(_ibid._, VI, 112). Also see V, 206, 410-1, VII, 49.

[i-374] _Ibid._, VII,...

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...74-5.

[i-401] _Ibid._, III, 79.

[i-402] _Physico-Theology ..._ (5th ed., London, 1720), 25-6. God's
"exquisite Workmanship" is seen...

Page 118

...Franklin suggests
(autobiographically?): "In Matters of Religion, he that alters his
Opinion on a _religious Account_, must...

Page 119

...a violent
antithesis between reason and authority (p. 212), declaring that "we
must judge from Scripture what...

Page 120

...Wollaston_ (Boston,
1922).

[i-421] Wollaston, _op. cit._, 15.

[i-422] _Ibid._, 23.

[i-423] _Ibid._, 78-9.

[i-424] _Ibid._, 80.

[i-425] _Ibid._

[i-426] _Ibid._, 83.

[i-427]...

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...pretend to Believe a Thing or the
Working of a Miracle, is a stupid and gaping...

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...heart. Often, we may suspect, the light within was
blended with the concept in deism, that...

Page 123

...there is no evidence that Franklin as early as 1728 read such
works (popular in the...

Page 124

...XXXV, 56-87
(Jan., 1933), and "Toward a Reinterpretation of Thomas Paine,"
_American Literature_, V, 133-45 (May, 1933).

[i-476]...

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...of paper after James is declared
objectionable by the authorities.

1722....

Page 126

...first issue, XL,
September 25-October 2, 1729. (Published by Franklin...

Page 127

...Historical
Chronicle_.

1741. Six issues (January-June) of this magazine (the first...

Page 128

...Concerning the Increase
of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, Etc._ Aids...

Page 129

...in
English, fifty-six in French, eleven in German, and nine...

Page 130

... Pringle visits Germany and Holland (June-August). Chosen
...

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...Constitutional
Convention of Pennsylvania. Appointed one of committee to
...

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... for three years). Associate member of Academy of Sciences,
...

Page 133

...contains valuable notes. But what
gives a special value to this collection is that...

Page 134

...the first publication
in English of the four parts, and the first publication of...

Page 135

...Parton in his _Life and
Times of Benjamin Franklin_, and I. W. Riley in...

Page 136

...has
provided a brilliant and perspicuous survey. "Self-revealed" fails to
do justice to...

Page 137

...2
vols. Boston: 1887-1888. (Convenient collection of letters to
Franklin; authors had access...

Page 138

...could play the
_Newton_ or the _Chesterfield_, and charm alike the lightnings and the
...

Page 139

...in
_Busy-Body_ series.)

Bloore, Stephen. "Samuel Keimer. A Foot-note to the Life of Franklin,"
...

Page 140

...agent of
the American propaganda in England, especially between 1765 and 1770."
New...

Page 141

...a broad table is to be made, and the edges not...

Page 142

..."The Literary Labors of Benjamin Franklin," _Proceedings of
the American Philosophical Society_, XXVIII, 177-97...

Page 143

...Institute_, CLXI, Nos. 4-5, 241-383 (April-May, 1906).

Hulbert, C. _Biographical Sketches of Dr. Benjamin Franklin, General
...

Page 144

...Carolina
Gazette," Journalism Quarterly_, IX, 257-68 (Sept., 1932). (Franklin's
partnership with Thomas Whitemarsh...

Page 145

...but a poet.")

_Memoires de l'Abbe Morellet, de l'Academie Francaise, sur le
dixhuitieme siecle et...

Page 146

...variety of ways as were those
of Benjamin Franklin." Best survey of its kind,...

Page 147

...nature,
"that is, of the God of nature himself.")

Rava, Luigi. "La fortuna di Beniamino...

Page 148

...people," a
"mighty Goliath," a "plague" in the eyes of the feudalistic rulers of
...

Page 149

...1856). (Praises disinterestedness of Franklin
as a scientist, as "one whom Bacon would have...

Page 150

..."Critical Essay on Authorities" consulted, pp.
324-56, which serves as a guide for further...

Page 151

...French Revolution;
has a full and up-to-date "Bibliographical Essay," pp. 293-322, with
critical...

Page 152

... formative years. Modifies the conventional view that the Church was
hostile to the...

Page 153

...Spirit in France and America._ Tr. by
R. Guthrie. New York: 1927. (Especially valuable...

Page 154

...Theology._ New York: 1932. (An important scholarly work
arguing reluctantly that Puritanism declined because...

Page 155

...Century._ 7
vols. New York: 1892-1893 (new ed.). (A standard work, containing a
...

Page 156

...XLII, 434-53, July,
1932.)

Morley, John. _Diderot and the Encyclopaedists._ 2 vols. London: 1923. (A
...

Page 157

...is the "almost perfect expression of the
pioneer liberalism of the period"; he is...

Page 158

...their assumption that
enlightened men "would be able to use government as a scientific...

Page 159

...attitude,
to their genetic development. Contains no bibliography. See Bury,
above.)

Williams, David. "The...

Page 160

...442-52. (Lists of "Collected Works," "Separate Works," and
"Contributions to Periodicals" constitute a convenient...

Page 161

...University." These range from 1731 to Franklin's latest
correspondence. Only a few of these...

Page 162

...besides corr[ecting] the Faults, change some sinister Accidents
and Events of it for others more favourable,...

Page 163

...assum'd by them for a Surname, when others
took surnames all over the kingdom)[,] on a...

Page 164

...well, for when I was a Boy he came over to
my Father in Boston, and...

Page 165

...holding Conventicles in Northamptonshire,
Benjamin and Josiah adher'd to them, and so continu'd all their Lives.
The...

Page 166

...Nantucket."

My elder Brothers were all put Apprentices to different Trades. I was
put to the Grammar...

Page 167

...other Occasions I was generally a
Leader among the Boys, and sometimes led them into Scrapes,...

Page 168

...could, some sensible Friend or Neighbour to converse with,
and always took care to start some...

Page 169

... And seven Grandchildren
...

Page 170

...Trade, and my Uncle Benjamin's Son Samuel who was bred to
that Business in London[,] being...

Page 171

...Evening and to be return'd early in the Morning[,] lest it should be
miss'd or wanted....

Page 172

...thought bore me down more by
his Fluency than by the Strength of his Reasons. As...

Page 173

...Sentences, and compleat the Paper. This
was to teach me Method in the Arrangement of Thoughts....

Page 174

...with great Ease. I also read Seller's and Sturmy's Books of
Navigation, and became acquainted with...

Page 175

...a positive
dogmatical Manner in advancing your Sentiments, may provoke
Contradiction and prevent a candid Attention. If...

Page 176

...it to be mine, I contriv'd to disguise
my Hand, and writing an anonymous Paper I...

Page 177

...give them any Satisfaction, they
contented themselves with admonishing me, and dismiss'd me; considering
me perhaps as...

Page 178

...Boston, when I reflected
that I had already made myself a little obnoxious to the governing
Party;...

Page 179

...I would
dry for him. It prov'd to be my old favourite Author Bunyan's Pilgrim's
Progress in...

Page 180

...I was told I
should find Boats that would carry me the rest of the Way...

Page 181

...City, some of the
Company were confident we must have pass'd it, and would row no...

Page 182

...passing by
the Door of Mr. Read, my future Wife's Father, when she standing at the
Door...

Page 183

...me he did not at present want a
Hand, being lately supply'd with one. But there...

Page 184

...there I
lodged and dieted. A few Days after[,] Keimer sent for me to print off
the...

Page 185

...when my Letter came to hand, spoke
to him of me, and show'd him the Letter....

Page 186

...my Friends. The Governor gave me an
ample Letter, saying many flattering things of me to...

Page 187

...of being at Man's
Estate. Holmes said what he could in fav^r of the Project; but...

Page 188

...for New York: Among which were two young
Women, Companions, and a grave, sensible Matron-like Quaker-Woman...

Page 189

...that he had been drunk every day since his Arrival
at New York, and behav'd very...

Page 190

...of the Boat, we had with a few Strokes pull'd her out
of his Reach. And...

Page 191

...Advantage. Then, says he,
when there, you may make Acquaintances and establish Correspondencies in
the Bookselling and...

Page 192

...of setting up a new Sect. He was to preach the Doctrines, and I was
to...

Page 193

...up in my Business. Perhaps too she thought
my Expectations not so well founded as I...

Page 194

...least Merit in any thing of mine, but makes 1000
Criticisms out of mere Envy. He...

Page 195

...like my Company, had me frequently to his
House; and his Setting me up was always...

Page 196

...thither.

Understanding that Col. French had brought on board the Governor's
Dispatches, I ask'd the Captain for...

Page 197

...well as the Stationer, that
Riddlesden the Attorney, was a very Knave. He had half ruin'd...

Page 198

...good deal of my Earnings in going to
Plays and other Places of Amusement. We had...

Page 199

...an Epic Poem, which he
was then composing, and desiring my Remarks and Corrections.--These I
gave him...

Page 200

...most facetious entertaining
Companion. Lyons too introduced me to Dr. Pemberton, at Batson's Coffee
House, who promis'd...

Page 201

...thought so too, and forbad[e] my Paying it. I stood
out two or three Weeks, was...

Page 202

...Protection she expected in
having a Man lodge in the House. She was a Widow, an...

Page 203

...impossible to avoid _vain Thoughts_.
I was permitted once to visit her: She was chearful and...

Page 204

...with me, He invited his old Creditors
to an Entertainment, at which he thank'd them for...

Page 205

...America.--After many
Years, you and I had something of more Importance to do with one of
these...

Page 206

...the Business diligently, studied Accounts, and grew in a little
Time expert at selling. We lodg'd...

Page 207

...a Pressman. George Webb, an
Oxford Scholar, whose Time for 4 Years he had likewise bought,...

Page 208

...in the
Town, increased. Keimer himself treated me with great Civility, and
apparent Regard; and nothing now...

Page 209

...me
that Keimer was in debt for all he possess'd, that his Creditors began
to be uneasy,...

Page 210

...Acquaintance with many principal People of the
Province. Several of them had been appointed by the...

Page 211

...to what was
intended by them: For the Arguments of the Deists which were quoted to
be...

Page 212

...preserve it.--

We had not been long return'd to Philadelphia, before the New Types
arriv'd from London....

Page 213

...that in the Autumn of the proceeding
Year I had formed most of my ingenious Acquaintance...

Page 214

...reading with Attention upon
the several Subjects, that we might speak more to the purpose: and...

Page 215

...this Relation.--

George Webb, who had found a Friend that lent him wherewith to purchase
his Time...

Page 216

...the hands of one who could also
handle a Pen, thought it convenient to oblige and...

Page 217

...fulfilling their Part of our
Agreement. Because I thought myself under great Obligations to them for
what...

Page 218

...and that soon to be sunk. The
wealthy Inhabitants oppos'd any Addition, being against all Paper
Currency,...

Page 219

...ever appear'd among us, being assisted in
that by my Friend Brientnal; I had also Paper,...

Page 220

...had better
Opportunities of obtaining News, his Paper was thought a better
Distributer of Advertisements than mine,...

Page 221

...the whole House, and I resolved to take no more
Inmates. But this Affair having turn'd...

Page 222

...Occasion they might be consulted; and by thus
clubbing our Books to a common Library, we...

Page 223

...thou a man diligent in his calling, he shall stand before kings,
he shall not stand...

Page 224

...or less mix'd with other articles, which, without
any tendency to inspire, promote, or confirm morality,...

Page 225

...to the public assemblies.
My conduct might be blameable, but I leave it, without attempting
further to...

Page 226

...and justly, and, if you speak,
speak accordingly.

8. JUSTICE

Wrong none by doing injuries, or omitting the...

Page 227

...letter of one of the virtues, on
which line, and in its proper column, I might...

Page 228

... |M.| | | | ...

Page 229

...aloud
Thro' all her works), He must delight in virtue;
...

Page 230

... ...

Page 231

... {10}
...

Page 232

...for things, papers, etc., I found
extreamly difficult to acquire. I had not been early accustomed...

Page 233

...never reach the wish'd-for
excellence of those copies, their hand is mended by the endeavour, and
is...

Page 234

...so happened that my intention of writing and publishing this
comment was never fulfilled. I did,...

Page 235

...him
abruptly, and of showing immediately some absurdity in his proposition;
and in answering I began by...

Page 236

... all confusion.

"That while a party is carrying on...

Page 237

...that
might shock the professors of any religion. It is express'd in these
words, viz.:

...

Page 238

...of
tolerable abilities may work great changes, and accomplish great affairs
among mankind, if he first forms...

Page 239

...the opposition of contrary inclinations. These may be found in the
papers about the beginning of...

Page 240

...upon honour, before our next meeting. As we play'd pretty
equally, we thus beat one another...

Page 241

...from the beginning made it a
rule to keep our institution a secret, which was pretty...

Page 242

...of the nights spent in tippling. I thereupon wrote a paper to be
read in Junto,...

Page 243

...which I first formed, called the Union Fire Company,
still subsists and flourishes, tho' the first...

Page 244

...collector's dish, gold and all. At
this sermon there was also one of our club, who,...

Page 245

...top of the Court-house steps,
which are in the middle of Market-street, and on the west...

Page 246

...pamphlet, entitled _Proposals Relating to the Education of
Youth in Pennsylvania_. This I distributed among the...

Page 247

...up for him two lectures, in which the experiments
were rang'd in such order, and accompanied...

Page 248

...such a person as Franklin
at Philadelphia, which he had doubted, he wrote and published a...

Page 249

...been so little noticed in England. The Society, on this, resum'd the
consideration of the letters...

Page 250

...I was not
then capable of knowing, I shall never be able to forget; for as...

Page 251

...not engross too much of your Paper at once, I will defer the
Remainder of my...

Page 252

...now-a-days do. These words of _Clericus_ gave me a Curiosity
to inquire a little more strictly...

Page 253

...and handsomely attir'd;
and on her left were seated several _Antique Figures_ with their Faces
vail'd. I...

Page 254

...Temple at the further End of the Plain, call'd,
_The Temple of Theology_. The Business of...

Page 255

...PAPERS, NO. V

(From Monday May 21. to Monday May 28. 1722.)

_Mulier...

Page 256

...find it a very difficult Matter to
reprove Women separate from the Men; for what Vice...

Page 257

...every Day with Folly
and Impertinence, while I am confident, had they...

Page 258

...this Fault is certainly more hainous in the former than in
the latter.

Upon the whole, I...

Page 259

...have determined, when I meet with a Good
Piece of _New-England_ Poetry, to give it a...

Page 260

...Persons_, viz.

--_a Wife, a Daughter, and a Sister,_

which is _Three Times_...

Page 261

...of your Elegy. _Take one of your Neighbours
who has lately departed...

Page 262

... ...

Page 263

...has been said in the
Praise of some Men," (says an ingenious Author,) "that they could...

Page 264

...might be added
to the Vocabulary of the _Tiplers_: But I have chose to mention these
few,...

Page 265

...and reduce us to a serene and placid State of Mind.

The main Design of this...

Page 266

...or Honour, than the
Publick be made to know, that it is the utmost of their...

Page 267

...either that infinite Goodness will
act what is ill, or infinite Wisdom what is, not wise,...

Page 268

...true.

It will be said, perhaps, that _God permits evil Actions to be done,
for_ wise _Ends...

Page 269

...doing. This is _Truth_ likewise, and _A_ acts
according to it when he steals the Horse....

Page 270

...we have but as one Chance to ten thousand, to hit on
the right Action; we...

Page 271

...a Manner agreeable to His Will, and in consequence
of that are all equally Good, and...

Page 272

...unless we desire to be freed from it, nor a great
_Uneasiness_ unless the consequent Desire...

Page 273

...are reducible to
this one Point, _Uneasiness_, tho' the Means we propose to ourselves for
expelling of...

Page 274

...from Friends, produces the _Pleasure_ of Meeting in exact
proportion. _&c._

This is the _fixt Nature_ of...

Page 275

...observ'd, that we cannot be proper Judges of
the good or bad Fortune of Others; we...

Page 276

...Approaches of Rest. This
makes an Equivalent tho' Annihilation should follow: For the Quantity of
_Pleasure_ and...

Page 277

...after Death? All our Ideas are first
admitted by the Senses and imprinted on the Brain,...

Page 278

...He doth must be infinitely wise and good;_

3. _Unless He be interrupted, and His Measures...

Page 279

...the
Creation! 'Tis insufferable!" But, (to use a Piece of _common_ Sense)
our _Geese_ are but _Geese_...

Page 280

...of
the people?

16. Hath any body attacked your reputation lately? And what can the
Junto do towards...

Page 281

...is one supreme, most perfect Being, Author and Father of
the Gods themselves. For I believe...

Page 282

...given us Reason whereby we are
capable of observing his Wisdom in the Creation, he is...

Page 283

...Wisdom, thy Power, and thy Goodness are everywhere clearly seen;
in the air and in the...

Page 284

...Dance not without Song; resound
His Praise, that out of Darkness called...

Page 285

...graciously assist my
Continual Endeavours and Resolutions of eschewing Vice and embracing
Virtue; which Kind of Supplications...

Page 286

... in my Behaviour,--Help me, O Father!

That I may have Tenderness...

Page 287

...the least Vanity, I assure you, or
Desire of showing my Parts, but purely for the...

Page 288

...This I shall sometimes do, when
I happen to have nothing of my own to say...

Page 289

... All fools have still an itching to deride,
And fain...

Page 290

...for being laughed at; but it is barbarously
unhandsome, when friends meet for the benefit of...

Page 291

...and in every
Circumstance of Life; I say, it is of much more real Advantage to...

Page 292

...Thing he means, which he is never afraid or asham'd to do, because
he knows he...

Page 293

...Great, we should become
really Great by being Good, and the Number of valuable Men would...

Page 294

...other Subject, that is fit for publick View in this
Manner, (and not basely borrow'd from...

Page 295

...Neighbour of mine, who is really agreeable Company
enough, and with whom...

Page 296

...I endeavour to conceal my Uneasiness as much as
possible, and with...

Page 297

...unmercifully, Tho' I believe it is only for want of Thought.
But...

Page 298

...the
Arts of Endearment, but that they can practise them with as much
Exactness as any other...

Page 299

...By
this Means you may, at any Time, without Offence, deliver
...

Page 300

...likely that they who desire to acquaint themselves with any
particular Art or Science, would gladly...

Page 301

...as agreeable and useful
an Entertainment as the Nature of the Thing will allow.



A DIALOGUE BETWEEN...

Page 302

...mind no Consequences, nor
regarding what's to come. Why should I not do it?

_Phil._ Suppose, _Horatio_,...

Page 303

...affrighted you; so that
you decline the Trial of what is Good, by reason: And had...

Page 304

...its own Nature, be subject to Error, Irregularity, Excess, and
Disorder. All intelligent, rational Agents find...

Page 305

...you remember, I told
you then, that some Misfortunes in my Pleasures had sent me to
Philosophy...

Page 306

...and every Thing within us, is in perpetual
Motion? What is this constant, durable Good, then,...

Page 307

...I have shewed you what 'tis not; it is not sensual, but 'tis
rational and moral...

Page 308

...naturally tend to produce
real and unmixed Happiness; and these Actions, by way of Distinction, we
call...

Page 309

...I am the happiest Man in the World. Be steady, _Horatio_!
Never depart from Reason and...

Page 310

...plump, and
outweighed that great good Book by abundance.[25] After the same Manner
the others were served,...

Page 311

...a certain N. B. at the End of it, I find an
Apology more particularly requisite...

Page 312

...together in
their Resentment.

7. That it is unreasonable to imagine Printers approve of every thing
they print,...

Page 313

...in't at all.
Thus, as Waller says,

Poets lose half the Praise they...

Page 314

...Temper of such of them as I know,
as to be well satisfied such a trifling...

Page 315

...Readers
have heard before, and some have not.

"A certain well-meaning Man and...

Page 316

...my Business. I shall not burn my Press and
melt my Letters.



PREFACE TO POOR RICHARD, 1733

COURTEOUS...

Page 317

... ...

Page 318

...shouldst thou not
be prais'd, but the rich Liquors themselves, which tho' within thee,
will be said...

Page 319

...has been
enabled to get a Pot of her own, and is no longer oblig'd to...

Page 320

...Scribler_, _a Fool_, _and
a Lyar_. Mr. _Leeds_ was too well bred to use any Man...

Page 321

...and I shall persist in that
Resolution: But having receiv'd much Abuse from _Titan Leeds_ deceas'd
(_Titan...

Page 322

...the free Spirit of an
Astronomer, and I am too compassionate to proceed suddenly to
Extremities with...

Page 323

...Twopence clear,
A Pin a Day is a Groat a Year.



TO JOSIAH...

Page 324

...and our
recommendation will not be, that we said, _Lord! Lord!_ but that we did
good to...

Page 325

...to
judge that this furious Bull is puffing, blowing and roaring. Distance
being consider'd and Time allow'd...

Page 326

...have a great Regard for, and I wish his Profit ten times
greater than it is....

Page 327

...continent colonies, communicating with all of them northward
and southward by post,...

Page 328

...gardening, and clearing land; and all philosophical
experiments that let light into...

Page 329

...have a copy sent him.

That the business and duty of the...

Page 330

... Jam grandis natu queritur, conspexit, ut aiunt,
Adrasum quendam vacua tonsoris...

Page 331

...and Band, commands a most profound Respect to Insolence
and Ignorance. The Pageantry of the Church...

Page 332

... ...

Page 333

...to be ranked)
obtained Copies of it in MS. And, as I believed it to be...

Page 334

...need skilful
engineers to direct them in their attack. Have you any? But some seem
to think...

Page 335

...the Drying Cheese.
Some Books we read, tho' few there are that...

Page 336

...long speeches;
for I have not the presumption to expect that you...

Page 337

...other woman's husband, nor enticed any
other youth; these things I never...

Page 338

...are
violated by my transgressions. If mine is a religious
...

Page 339

...them; the duty of the first and
great command of nature and...

Page 340

...and _much
Good may't do ye...._

...

Page 341

..._Taylor_ is no
more, whose _Ephemerides_ so long and so agreeably serv'd and
entertain'd these Provinces, I...

Page 342

...after it is due, he gives me the interest, or so much as I can
make...

Page 343

...you take the pains at first to mention
particulars, it will have this good effect: you...

Page 344

...the cause of
virtue, the commons followed in multitudes. The mode has a wonderful
influence on mankind;...

Page 345

...the Undertaking, are
desired to communicate their Sentiments as soon as may be,...

Page 346

...Grafting, Inoculating, and the like, as to
despise all other Amusements for their Sake, why may...

Page 347

...and _Astronomy_.

The _English_ Language might be taught by Grammar; in which some of our
best Writers,...

Page 348

...made acquainted with the best
Models among the antients, their Beauties being particularly pointed out
to them....

Page 349

..._French_;
for Law, the _Latin_ and _French_; Merchants, the _French_, _German_,
and _Spanish_: And though all should...

Page 350

...that Art by which weak Men perform such Wonders,
Labour is sav'd, Manufactures expedited, &c. This...

Page 351

...it over by themselves before they
are called to read to the Master, or Usher; who...

Page 352

...understand the Lessons,
before they are put upon reading them properly, to which End each Boy
should...

Page 353

...be excited among the Boys by giving,
Weekly, little Prizes, or other small Encouragements to those...

Page 354

...of History, let them now at proper Hours receive
some farther Instruction in Chronology, and in...

Page 355

...in a List.

The Hours of each Day are to be divided and dispos'd in such...

Page 356

...the
electric spark. I have five bottles that contain 8 or 9 gallons each,
two of which...

Page 357

...Numbers
of these venomous Reptiles we call RATTLE-SNAKES; Felons-convict from
the Beginning of the World: These, whenever...

Page 358

..._Child_ now and then kill'd by their venomous Bite,
... or even a favourite _Lap Dog_?

I...

Page 359

...Labour for others that have it; when Labourers are plenty,
their Wages will be low; by...

Page 360

...&c. Hence Labour is no cheaper now in
_Pennsylvania_, than it was 30 Years ago, tho'...

Page 361

...Increase of People depends on the Encouragement of Marriages,
the following Things must diminish a Nation,...

Page 362

...needed from _Africa_. The
Northern Colonies, having few Slaves, increase in Whites. Slaves also
pejorate[40] the Families...

Page 363

...as religious Duties, and educate their Children therein,
more than others commonly do; such Sect must...

Page 364

...Navy in Queen _Elizabeth's_ Time. How important an
Affair then to _Britain_ is the present Treaty...

Page 365

... [Philadelphia] Oct....

Page 366

... ...

Page 367

... ...

Page 368

...and Nights, Fairs, Courts, Roads, &c. Together
with useful Tables, chronological...

Page 369

... ...

Page 370

... [Pisces]
...

Page 371

... pleas'd to understand that my _Predictions of the Weather_
give such general...

Page 372

... =R. SAUNDERS.=
...

Page 373

... From off the lofty Mountains they subside,
And gently...

Page 374

...And all the Man with Health and Courage fires.
The Cloud-topt Hills...

Page 375

... Then from their Dens the rav'nous Monsters creep,
Whilst in their...

Page 376

...22 | 4 38 |
| 8 | 2 | ...

Page 377

... | 7 12 | 4 48...

Page 378

... _rain._ ...

Page 379

... ...

Page 380

... ...

Page 381

...| 27 | ...

Page 382

... {31 ...

Page 383

... +----+----------+----------+----+ l t |
| 1 | 4 ...

Page 384

...| 12 | 5 |
| 17 | 4 ...

Page 385

...it, will best
appear by considering a little the =GREAT= Works, properly so
...

Page 386

...their Holds return in Haste,
To Man give up the World, his...

Page 387

... | 6 52 | 5 8...

Page 388

... 37 | 5 23 |
| 21 | 4 | ...

Page 389

...| 3 | ...

Page 390

..._'tis_ Scandalum |
| 11 | ...

Page 391

... ...

Page 392

... =FEBRUARY= hath XXVIII Days.

...

Page 393

... | 6 | 11 |...

Page 394

...| 8 | 30 |
| 11 | M. ...

Page 395

... 9 | 15 |
| 27 | 2 ...

Page 396

... ...

Page 397

... 22 | 5 38 |
| 5 | 2 |...

Page 398

... | 6...

Page 399

..._grows_ | 5 50 | 6 10 |
...

Page 400

... ...

Page 401

...set 11 51 ...

Page 402

... 18 | [Quartile] [Sun] [Jupiter] _used._ ...

Page 403

... Planets Places....

Page 404

...| 9 M 21 | 12 | 18 |
|...

Page 405

...42 | 10 58 | 1 | 6 ...

Page 406

...sometimes with the naked Eye, when he
shines through a thin Cloud...

Page 407

... There the tall Ships the rolling Billows sweep,
And bound...

Page 408

... 23 |
| 8 | G |5th in Lent. ...

Page 409

... |...

Page 410

... |
+----+-----------------+---------------------------------------------+
| ...

Page 411

... 18 | ...

Page 412

... _Paintings and_ |
| 19 | ...

Page 413

... ...

Page 414

...D. | [Sun] |[Saturn]|[Jupiter]|[Mars] |[Venus]|[Mercury]|[Moon]^sL.|
+----+-------+--------+---------+-------+-------+---------+----------+
| | [Ari.]| [Cap.]...

Page 415

... 53 | 2 | 23 |
| 4...

Page 416

... 12 | 4 | 8 |
|...

Page 417

...us.
He is always so near the Sun, that we have no...

Page 418

...the Wood,
In Nature's various Wants to thee complains,
...

Page 419

...4 long. ...

Page 420

... | 4 48 | 7 12 |
...

Page 421

... ...

Page 422

... _must sow the_ |
| 10 | ...

Page 423

... 28 | ...

Page 424

... |
| 27 |[Aries] ...

Page 425

... {31 ...

Page 426

... 3 |
+----+-------+--------+---------+-------+-------+---------+----------+

[Illustration]

+----+----------+----------+----+------+
| D. |[Moon]rise|[Moon]sou:| T....

Page 427

... 8 | 2 | 4 |
| 16 |...

Page 428

... 20 |
+----+----------+----------+-----------+

twice the apparent Breadth of the...

Page 429

... *(page break)*


...

Page 430

... | 7 | 5 | ...

Page 431

...|
| 19 | 3 | ...

Page 432

... 7 24 |
| King =GEORGE='s 27th Year begins the 22d Day...

Page 433

... 21 | [Conjunction] [Sun] [Venus] _it._ ...

Page 434

... 18 | ...

Page 435

... _World, least_ |
...

Page 436

...9 aft.

{12 [Scorpio] 5...

Page 437

... | 16 | 10 | [Can.]...

Page 438

...|
| 15 | rises | 12 23...

Page 439

...not only proceeds forward, but likewise turns
round upon its own Axis,...

Page 440

... ...

Page 441

...6 | 6 | ...

Page 442

... | 4 44 | 7 16 |
|...

Page 443

... | 4 54 | 7 6 |
...

Page 444

... |
| 7 | ...

Page 445

... 26 | ...

Page 446

... _An ill Wound,_|
| 25 |[Gemini] ...

Page 447

... Last Q. 23 ...

Page 448

... 1 |
| 27 | 5 ...

Page 449

... |
| 14 | Moon | 11 ...

Page 450

...| 30 | Moon | A. 16 |...

Page 451

... ...

Page 452

...0 | 7 0 |
| 6 | 2 |...

Page 453

... | 5 14 | ...

Page 454

... _perhaps_ | 5...

Page 455

...| [Trine] [Mars] [Mercury] _know_ ...

Page 456

...*s rise 10 25 ...

Page 457

...rise 9 52 ...

Page 458

... D. H. -->
First Q. ...

Page 459

... | 2 |
| 22 |[Vir.]0|...

Page 460

... | 12 | Moon | 11 18...

Page 461

... |
| 28 | Moon | 11 ...

Page 462

...regard to the fixed Stars; and by
observing how differently the Light...

Page 463

... _Clouds_ | 5 34 | 6...

Page 464

...| 15 | 7 | ...

Page 465

... _rain_ | 6 ...

Page 466

...| ...

Page 467

... _count_ |
| 15 |...

Page 468

... ...

Page 469

... New [Moon] 26 9 aft.

...

Page 470

... 5 | 0 | 11...

Page 471

... 57 | 4 | 3 |
| 15...

Page 472

... 13 | 6 | 19 |
+----+----------+----------+----+------+

...

Page 473

... [us]


...

Page 474

...5 44 |
| 6 | 7 |Days dec. 3 26 ...

Page 475

... _and fair,_ | 6 31 | 5 29 |
...

Page 476

... _cold rain,_ | 6 46 | 5...

Page 477

... | ...

Page 478

...15 |[Gemini] 2 | [Moon] with [Mars] ...

Page 479

... ...

Page 480

... ...

Page 481

... 1 | 14 | ...

Page 482

... 2 | 29 |
| 11 | Moon ...

Page 483

...| A. 17 | 3 | 15 |
...

Page 484

...the Whole of the Sun's
Face, we call the Eclipse partial or...

Page 485

... | 6 50 | 5 10 |
| ...

Page 486

...13 | 3 | ...

Page 487

...| 7 14 | 4 46 |
| 25 |...

Page 488

... |
| 4 |[Pisces] 1 |...

Page 489

... 25 | [Saturn] sets 7 35 ...

Page 490

... | ...

Page 491

...| ...

Page 492

... 3 |
| 12 | 20 |...

Page 493

...|
| 9 | Moon | 11 ...

Page 494

...| 25 | A | A. ...

Page 495

...sometimes
above and sometimes below that of the Earth round the Sun,...

Page 496

... 20 | 4 40 |
| 4 | 3 |Days...

Page 497

... _flying clouds,_| 7 25 | 4 35 |
...

Page 498

...25 | 4 35 |
| 28 | 6 |=INNOCENTS.= ...

Page 499

... ...

Page 500

... ...

Page 501

...Shor. D ...

Page 502

... 29 | Sirius rise 6 48 ...

Page 503

...19 | 18 | 7 ...

Page 504

...9 54 | 12 | 26 |
| ...

Page 505

...| 2 | 12 |
| 24 | sets...

Page 506

... Earth, must see it always directly over their Heads with much
...

Page 507

... ...

Page 508

... ...

Page 509

... 3 4
Motion of Half...

Page 510

... 5, 11 44 P. M.
...

Page 511

... ...

Page 512

...it the Encouragement it deserves, and
us, as the Promoters of such...

Page 513

...by the Points,
and passing thro the Metal into the Ground without...

Page 514

...Lancaster June 12, and Nov. 12. Marcus-Hook Oct. 10.
Annapolis May 12,...

Page 515

...in _May_, and the
1st tuesday in _November_.

...

Page 516

... _Supreme Courts in_ New-York, _are...

Page 517

... *(page break)*


...

Page 518

...45, to _Grave's
Ferry_, on _Neu's River_ 32, to _Whitlock River_ 20,...

Page 519

...to help his other Children and my Brethren. For
I do not think that Thanks and...

Page 520

...and sanctified
Levite; & those who gave Food to the hungry, Drink to the Thirsty,
Raiment to...

Page 521

... Wednesday Morning [December...

Page 522

...of parliament, and paid by the people here; since
they might abuse it by projecting useless...

Page 523

...council representative of the people, even with regard to military
matters, are not so great as...

Page 524

...foreign superfluities) our whole wealth centers finally
amongst the merchants and inhabitants of Britain, and if...

Page 525

... Boston, Dec. 22, 1754.

SIR,

Since the conversation your Excellency was...

Page 526

...importance, whether the
fighting be done by John or Thomas, or the tax paid by William...

Page 527

...and strange countries, methinks ought rather
to expect some preference. With the greatest respect and esteem,...

Page 528

...and made
such long stretches, that a very few days brought me to my own house,
and...

Page 529

...in the road, and
shewing itself by the dust it raised and contained. It appeared in...

Page 530

...up, it gradually became invisible below
as it went away over that field. The course of...

Page 531

...been in
such a perpetual hurry of public affairs of various kinds, as renders it
impracticable for...

Page 532

...you have continued ever since in that monastery
[Block Island]; or have broke into the world...

Page 533

...am so used to 'em that I don't perceive
'em; as the song says,

...

Page 534

...you
get a good Husband,--then stay at home, & nurse the Children, and live
like a Christian--Spend...

Page 535

... ...

Page 536

... B. FRANKLIN.



TO REV. GEORGE WHITEFIELD

...

Page 537

...about.

I thank you for your good Wishes and Prayers, and am, with the greatest
Esteem and...

Page 538

...a _Word to the Wise
is enough_, and _many Words won't fill a Bushel_, as _Poor...

Page 539

...never found again_; and
what we call _Time-enough, always proves little enough_:...

Page 540

..._Poor Dick_. Work while it is
called To-day, for you know not...

Page 541

...their_ WITS _only, but they break for want of Stock._
Whereas Industry...

Page 542

...even in the smallest
Matters, because sometimes _a little Neglect may breed...

Page 543

..._Beware of_ little _Expences_; _a small Leak will sink a great
Ship_;...

Page 544

...Extravagancies, the Genteel are reduced to Poverty, and
forced to borrow of...

Page 545

... But little Boats should keep near Shore._

'Tis however a...

Page 546

...of that Prince, or that Government, who should issue an
Edict forbidding...

Page 547

... as _Poor Richard_ says--Gain may be temporary and uncertain,
but...

Page 548

...not a tenth Part of the Wisdom was my own
which he ascribed to me, but...

Page 549

...fretting; Potts, in the midst of his poverty,
ever laughing. It seems, then, that happiness in...

Page 550

... ...

Page 551

... In prayer and praise your God address,
Nor cease, till...

Page 552

...mean seemingly pious
discourses, instead of humane benevolent actions. Those they almost put
out of countenance, by...

Page 553

...Judges in our colonies, not only in those which have Courts of
Chancery, but also in...

Page 554

...manner of
using them. Christians are directed to have faith in Christ, as the
effectual means of...

Page 555

...the
lower End is contain'd in a close Leather Bag, and so the Air cannot
come into...

Page 556

...May, and at no other time of the Year. He therefore
advis'd, that, some Days before...

Page 557

...and God vouchsafes me
his Protection, I shall do nothing unworthy the Character of an honest
Man,...

Page 558

...increase the
Number of good People. You cannot conceive how shamefully the Mode here
is a single...

Page 559

...B. FRANKLIN.



TO JARED INGERSOLL[60]

...

Page 560

... B. FRANKLIN.



TO MISS MARY STEVENSON

...

Page 561

...for the Necessaries of Life are over, we shall come to think of
the Embellishments. Already...

Page 562

...unknown, his Bosom heaves;
He only injures those, with whom he...

Page 563

...to enjoy life. When will you retire to your
villa, give yourself repose, delight in viewing...

Page 564

...to awe the Assembly into proprietary measures? And yet all
this has happened within a few...

Page 565

...amendments needless disgusting.

These things bring him and his government into sudden contempt. All
regard for him...

Page 566

...cannot recollect that I have in a private
capacity given just cause of offence to any...

Page 567

...WITH SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE SAME.[68]

[1764]

... On _Wednesday_, the 14th of _December_, 1763, Fifty-seven Men,...

Page 568

...eternal Disgrace of
their Country and Colour, then mounted their Horses, huzza'd in Triumph,
as if they...

Page 569

...of such Actions.

Homer wrote his Poem, called the _Odyssey_, some Hundred Years before
the Birth of...

Page 570

...honest Industry in their Callings would fail of
Success. Thus when _Ulysses_ tells _Eumaeus_, who doubted...

Page 571

...The Powers they defy'd;
But Heav'n is just, and by a...

Page 572

...However, what was honourable in _Moors_, may not be a
Rule to us; for we are...

Page 573

...a People, expect no Blessing
from Heaven; there will be no Security for our Persons or...

Page 574

...given us, with so much honest Zeal for the
welfare of _Poor Old England_, of the...

Page 575

...Spectacles in Nature. Really, Sir, the World is
grown too incredulous. It is like the Pendulum...

Page 576

...Many pieces of it are
mere compositions of tricks. I have sometimes, at a concert, attended...

Page 577

...than the other, you cannot tell which it is.
[I have ascribed to memory the ability...

Page 578

...must exist at the
same time. Hence arose that beauty in those tunes that has so...

Page 579

...THE REPEAL OR SUSPENSION OF THE STAMP ACT

...

Page 580

...hitherto sharing the burden, and were therefore now
indebted to Britain on that account. And this...

Page 581

...be given by others, without asking our consent? And, if
the Parliament has a right thus...

Page 582

...add, that I am as desirous of
his acquaintance and intimacy, as he was of my...

Page 583

...a matter of great importance that clear
ideas should be formed on solid principles, both in...

Page 584

...of
sending a force to compel them.

The reasons given by the Assembly to the Governor, for...

Page 585

...expence of Parliament, and that therefore the Parliament has a
right to tax them, &c. The...

Page 586

...my life in Britain, and
have formed so many friendships in it, that I love it,...

Page 587

... ...

Page 588

...been out half an
Hour, before the Sea laid Claim to it, and they were oblig'd...

Page 589

...Inches
Diameter in a Piece of Paper; place it on the Side of your Face in...

Page 590

...World, and the most amiable.

[Illustration: **table seating plan**

MAD. LOUISE...

Page 591

...everywhere receive give us the strongest Impressions
of the French Politeness. It seems to be a...

Page 592

...Way, now I mention Cards, let me tell you that Quadrille is quite
out of Fashion...

Page 593

...the poor are vested with an inheritance, as it
were, in all the estates of the...

Page 594

...the labouring poor receive in
payment for their labour. It may seem a paradox if I...

Page 595

...our
labouring poor, in some shape or other, for the products of industry.
Even beggars, pensioners, hospitals,...

Page 596

... I am, Sir, &c.
...

Page 597

...of the human species, as it must be
that of superior beings in better worlds. I...

Page 598

...afford their Advice, which amply
supplies that Defect; and, by early Marriage, Youth is sooner form'd...

Page 599

...Expression to her,
even in jest, for Slights in Jest, after frequent bandyings, are apt to
end...

Page 600

...between our
treatment of the colonists, and the tyranny of the Carthaginians over
their conquered Sardinians, when...

Page 601

...food or subsistence for mankind arises from the earth or waters.

2. Necessaries of life, that...

Page 602

...methods of working, not generally known; and strangers to
the manufactures, though they know pretty well...

Page 603

...that she is more unwilling to pay
Tribute to Cesar, and has less Objection to Smuggling;...

Page 604

... ...

Page 605

... B. FRANKLIN.



TO MISS GEORGIANA SHIPLEY[78]

...

Page 606

... By the fair hand of an indulgent mistress;
...

Page 607

...FRANKLIN

...

Page 608

...a
long syllable short, or a short one long, when sung; their singing was
only a more...

Page 609

...sees with books in their hands all those
who desire to understand what they hear sung...

Page 610

...no more of the song,
than you would from its tune played on any other instrument....

Page 611

...these your darling
manufacturers, and so scatter it again all over the nation?

The wool would produce...

Page 612

...farmers be able
to afford our labourers higher wages, if you will not allow us to...

Page 613

...encouragement of idleness, and
you should not now wonder, that it has had its effect in...

Page 614

...peace
now enjoyed throughout our dominions, having afforded us leisure to
apply ourselves to the regulation of...

Page 615

...of whatever kind imported into the same, a duty of four
and...

Page 616

...neglect thereof to us at his peril. But we are
nevertheless graciously...

Page 617

...being in
possession of wool, beaver and other furs, have
...

Page 618

...of Great Britain, for the better
peopling of that country.

...

Page 619

...its neighbours,
should, from mean and injudicious views of petty immediate profit, treat
its own children in...

Page 620

...are to _suppose_ them always inclined to revolt, and
treat them accordingly. Quarter troops among them,...

Page 621

...the same
practice, and make the supreme government, _detestable_.

VIII. If, when you are engaged in war,...

Page 622

...us to know us, and feel for us, cannot take from us our
_Habeas Corpus_ right,...

Page 623

...the cost of the party prosecuted_,
tho' acquitted, because _the King is to pay no costs_....

Page 624

...people, diminish their
respect, and _increase their disaffection_.

XV. Convert the brave, honest officers of your _navy_...

Page 625

...to severer
measures, let not that _alarm_ or offend you. Why should it, since you
all mean...

Page 626

... Q. E. D.



TO WILLIAM...

Page 627

...mind I preferred the first, as a composition for the quantity and
variety of the matter...

Page 628

...not wonder that Hutchinson should be dejected. It must be an
uncomfortable thing to live among...

Page 629

...the time, would be relieved, and the younger sort, who have
had some principles of religion...

Page 630

...accurate and concise history,
and, as such, may more properly be read at home.

[We do not...

Page 631

...generally a full third
shorter.

We humbly suppose the same service contained in this abridgment might
properly serve...

Page 632

...alter a word in the remaining
text; not even to substitute _who_ for _which_ in the...

Page 633

...and couldst not thou, who art thyself a sinner,
bear with him one night?

12. And Abraham...

Page 634

...being ashamed,
turned from him, and took not the axe, but sought his brother Judah.

14. And...

Page 635

... Philadelphia, July...

Page 636

...at the Congress, and
that sits till after four in the afternoon. Both these bodies proceed
with...

Page 637

...soon be
made our enemies. Our respect for them will proportionably diminish, and
I see clearly we...

Page 638

...extinguished every remaining Spark of Affection for that
Parent Country we once held so dear; but,...

Page 639

...I
knew, that, being once broken, the separate Parts could not retain even
their Shares of the...

Page 640

...DE SCHAUMBERGH TO THE BARON HOHENDORF, COMMANDING THE
HESSIAN TROOPS IN AMERICA

...

Page 641

...inglorious success, while the conquered cover themselves with glory
by perishing with their arms in their...

Page 642

... ...

Page 643

...temper, and
disturb one's quiet. I have no private interest in the reception of my
inventions by...

Page 644

...to
our submitting to the government of Great Britain, it is vain to think
of it. She...

Page 645

...must suffer extremely, if continued in their
present situation; fed scantily on bad provisions, without warm...

Page 646

...into France, besides a great number dismissed at sea on your
coasts, to whom vessels were...

Page 647

...do you not at this Instant keep their
Chief, pension'd, and ready to head a fresh...

Page 648

...I shall not surrender my Liberty and Property, but with my
Life. It is not true,...

Page 649

... ...

Page 650

...to be. The body of our people are not merchants, but humble
husbandmen, who delight in...

Page 651

...this pretended right is
indisputable, as you say, we utterly deny. Your Parliament never had a
right...

Page 652

...give them to, or drop them for, a stranger, whom I may
find next Monday in...

Page 653

...not likely to
have the effect you seem to expect; the persuading us to act basely...

Page 654

...remember, my dear friend, that when we lately spent that happy
day in the delightful garden...

Page 655

...us continue so long! I have seen
generations born, flourish, and expire. My present friends are...

Page 656

...against
me, that I have not first been acquainted with, and had an opportunity
of answering. I...

Page 657

...boarding school he was at could well
afford him; and, after some consideration where to find...

Page 658

...the Mind, useful in the course of human Life, are to be
acquir'd or strengthened by...

Page 659

...a stale mate] from the Negligence
of our Adversary. And whoever considers, what in Chess he...

Page 660

...and make him less dissatisfied with
himself, by every kind of civil expression that may be...

Page 661

...not
regularly answered. They gave me however great Pleasure, as they
acquainted me with your Welfare, and...

Page 662

...C. C. X. X. V._

It was addressed to Mr. J. R., that is, James Ralph,...

Page 663

... ...

Page 664

...much for it as it was
worth; put me in mind what good things I might...

Page 665

...for example, the apples of King John,
which happily are not to be bought; for if...

Page 666

...in the manner of the
Nations round them. They had such Kings accordingly; but...

Page 667

...Happiness was not increas'd by the
Change, and they had reason to wish and...

Page 668

...asked, whether he had considered the uprightness and fidelity of
the prince's servant Job, he immediately...

Page 669

...for such a work myself; I throw out the hint for the
consideration of the learned;...

Page 670

...for naught?

9. And Satan answered,
...

Page 671

...Borealis_ pleased. If it should
occasion further Enquiry, and so produce a better Hypothesis, it will
not...

Page 672

...see our Country nourish,
as it will amazingly and rapidly after the War is over. Like...

Page 673

...since I have heard any thing of the _good Bishop_.
Strange, that so simple a Character...

Page 674

...Bills, &c., appear to me
vain and Impracticable. The true Cure, I imagine, is to be...

Page 675

...cruel sufferings?

GOUT. Many things; you have ate and drank too freely, and too much
indulged those...

Page 676

...the fluids, the
rigid attention it requires helps to retard the circulation and obstruct
internal secretions. Wrapt...

Page 677

...place; observe when you walk, that all
your weight is alternately thrown from one leg to...

Page 678

...very far short of the truth; the gross amount
is one hundred and ninety-nine times.

FRANKLIN. Is...

Page 679

...creatures, four or five old men and women, bent
and perhaps crippled by weight of years,...

Page 680

...much from the different Views
in which they consider Things, Persons, and Events; and the Effect...

Page 681

...fretting themselves and others
about the contraries, it is good for others to avoid an acquaintance
with...

Page 682

...for your Friendly Verses and good Wishes. How many
Talents you possess! Painting, Poetry, Languages, etc.,...

Page 683

...Your concern for the security of life, even
the lives of your enemies, does honour to...

Page 684

... Indian triumphal Marks, of which the following is Invoice and
...

Page 685

... Skin yellow Ground, with little red Tadpoles, to represent,
...

Page 686

...King, that he may regard them and be refreshed;
...

Page 687

... This ruins us. Think of some Remedy. We are poor; and you
...

Page 688

... ...

Page 689

... nation at the same time comes much more within the
...

Page 690

...war with
your ancient enemies, rather than be without a war, you...

Page 691

...their property, kings also might
forfeit their title, and all claim to...

Page 692

...has wasted the lives of at least an equal number of
his...

Page 693

... calamities. The only difference will be, that plagues,
pestilences, and...

Page 694

... ...

Page 695

...can, they exaggerate the Number to augment the fancied Glory;
but they creep into Corners, or...

Page 696

...de Larochefoucault, who thinks with me,
the new Experiments you have made are extremely curious; and...

Page 697

...Year my Discharge from this publick
Station, that I might enjoy a little Leisure in the...

Page 698

...Why has a single Man in
England, who happens to love Blood and to hate Americans,...

Page 699

... ...

Page 700

...formed, thro' Ignorance, mistaken Ideas and Expectations
of what is to be obtained there; he thinks...

Page 701

...indeed are by no means excluded from
exercising those Professions; and the quick Increase of Inhabitants
everywhere...

Page 702

...only de Hog. He, de hog, no workee; he eat, he
drink, he walk about, he...

Page 703

...of the good
Wages they receive there, while they work for others, enables them to
buy the...

Page 704

...the several States, and the
Articles of Confederation that bind the whole together for general
Purposes, under...

Page 705

...in
different Provinces; but those Projects have generally failed, goods of
equal Value being imported cheaper. And...

Page 706

...to gain, a decent
Livelihood. The Artisans, who fear creating future Rivals in Business,
refuse to take...

Page 707

...Mediocrity of Fortune that prevails in America
obliging its People to follow some Business for subsistence,...

Page 708

...to encourage us to
betray and destroy each other, they are wicked...

Page 709

...in Works of public utility! What
an extension of Agriculture, even to the Tops of our...

Page 710

...Sense of their Country! I imagine it must be likewise contrary
to the Good Sense of...

Page 711

...that the Cincinnati, if they must go on with their
Project, would direct the Badges of...

Page 712

...the rest, make together as follows:

...

Page 713

...the Knights of the Garter, Bath, Thistle, St.
Louis, and other Orders of Europe do, with...

Page 714

...a much more respectable Bird, and withal a true original
Native of America. Eagles have been...

Page 715

... ...

Page 716

...day. I looked forward, too, and
found he was to rise still earlier every day till...

Page 717

...are
one hundred thousand families in Paris, and that these families consume
in the night half a...

Page 718

... and tallow per hour, gives the weight of ...

Page 719

...willingly
to bed at eight in the evening; and, having had eight hours sleep, he
will rise...

Page 720

...SUBSCRIBER.



TO SAMUEL MATHER[121]

...

Page 721

...my head,
has frequently been of use to me; and I often think of it, when...

Page 722

...Inhabitants, I apprehend, more than us.

It is wonderful how preposterously the affairs of this world...

Page 723

...Mrs. Vaughan's, that you may see
a great many of them, all as happy as the...

Page 724

...understanding that he had a Daughter, sent her as a Present a
new-fashioned Cap. Three Years...

Page 725

...buy Drink? Our American Commerce is, I
confess, a little in this way. We sell our...

Page 726

...will be consum'd, and at the end of the Year I
shall be no richer than...

Page 727

...in one year the Works of many
Years' Peace. So that we may hope the Luxury...

Page 728

...or may say of the Mortal within."

It is so natural to wish to be well...

Page 729

...and Animals, without being at the Trouble
of repeated new Creations; and by the natural Reduction...

Page 730

...my dear friends, yours most
affectionately,

...

Page 731

...the Revolution; and the few remaining Friends of the
old Government among us take pains to...

Page 732

...for the present his Views
of acting in the political Line, and applies himself ardently to...

Page 733

...Belief of a Providence, that takes Cognizance
of, guards, and guides, and may favour particular Persons,...

Page 734

... ...

Page 735

...the
expected Happiness of their Situation; for their vanquish'd competitors,
of the same Spirit, and from the...

Page 736

...some, that this is an Utopian Idea, and that we
can never find Men to serve...

Page 737

...and this, thro' Fatigues and
Distresses, in common with the other brave Men, his military Friends...

Page 738

...or do we
imagine we no longer need its assistance? I have lived, Sir, a long
time;...

Page 739

...said, "But I meet with nobody but myself that
is _always_ in the right." "_Je ne...

Page 740

...unanimously in
recommending this Constitution, wherever our Influence may extend, and
turn our future thoughts and endeavours...

Page 741

...Leisure to read, or
hear read, all the Packets of your various...

Page 742

...by their Neighbours, make a villainous Trade of their
Office, and promote...

Page 743

...and making you appear contemptible
and detestable all the World over; but...

Page 744

... ...

Page 745

...Change of Situation, exclaim'd
against their Leaders as the Authors of their Trouble; and were not...

Page 746

...his Family, the
partial Poll-Tax already levied and given to Aaron[T] was to be follow'd
by a...

Page 747

...artful Men, pretending
Public Good, with nothing really in view but private Interest, they were
led to...

Page 748

...guarding against an evil
that old States are most liable to, _excess of power_ in the...

Page 749

...and in
the same Morning judg'd and condemn'd, and sentence pronounc'd against
him, that he is a...

Page 750

...education;

"There is a Lust in Man no Charm can tame,
...

Page 751

...of the press_.

My proposal then is, to leave the liberty of the press untouched, to...

Page 752

...social affections of his heart. Accustomed to
move like a mere machine, by the will of...

Page 753

...obliging. I am thankful to God,
however, that, among the numerous Ills human Life is subject...

Page 754

...must be ascribed. I am however too
much obliged to Yale College, the first learned Society...

Page 755

...being believed, if that Belief has the good Consequence,
as probably it has, of making his...

Page 756

... March 23d, 1790.

SIR,

Reading last night in your excellent Paper the speech of Mr. Jackson...

Page 757

...whimsical Sect, who would have us, not
only forbear making more Slaves,...

Page 758

... immortal Souls. Those who remain at home have not that
...

Page 759

... it, that God has given the World, and all that it contains,
...

Page 760

...to compel Obedience, or
inflict Punishment. Hence they generally study Oratory, the best Speaker
having the most...

Page 761

...imperfectly, were therefore neither fit for
Hunters, Warriors, nor Counsellors; they were totally good for nothing.
We...

Page 762

...to them, acquainting them with the principal
historical Facts on which our Religion is founded; such...

Page 763

...to be
private; this they esteem great Rudeness, and the Effect of the Want of
Instruction in...

Page 764

...What do they do there?" "They meet
there," says Conrad, "to hear and learn _good Things_."...

Page 765

...give him Meat and Drink, that he may allay
his Thirst and Hunger; and we spread...

Page 766

..."what I do not know; inform my
ignorance, and enlighten my understanding." "Contemplate," said
Albumazar [_sic._ Belubel],...

Page 767

...a suppliant petition for relief,
having been obliged to employ the hand of another in transcribing...

Page 768

...must speedily cause _the certain overthrow of our happy
constitution_, and enslave us _all_.

And, sixthly and...

Page 769

...are found dead abed in the
morning.

Another means of preserving health, to be attended to, is...

Page 770

...hurtful, by
producing certain uneasiness, slight indeed at first, which as with
regard to the lungs is...

Page 771

...we are less
incommoded, such being longer tolerable.

3. When you are awakened by this uneasiness, and...

Page 772

...them
will be totally fruitless. I need not mention the case to you, my dear
friend, but...

Page 773

...Hart, "Who Was the Mother of Franklin's Son? An
Inquiry Demonstrating that She Was Deborah Read,...

Page 774

..._American Weekly Mercury_. Nos. I-V and VIII are by
Franklin. See S. Bloore's "Joseph Breintnall, First...

Page 775

...H. Smyth
confesses: "The mystery surrounding the authorship and first
publication of the 'Speech' remains an impenetrable...

Page 776

...has compiled a "Catalogue of Pamphlets, Once a
Part of the Library of Benjamin Franklin, and...

Page 777

...into more other
tongues than anything else thus far bearing the stamp of our national
spirit" (pp....

Page 778

...Franklin writes to Deborah, March 5, 1760 (_Writings_, IV,
9-10), offering two reasons for his veto...

Page 779

...subsists"
(_ibid._, IV, 246).

[67] His son William Franklin (1731-1813), governor of New Jersey, and
wife. See _Dictionary...

Page 780

...work is _Physiocratie, ou
constitution naturelle du gouvernement le plus avantageux au genre
humain_. 2 vols. Leyden...

Page 781

...TOO MUCH" (cited in Parton, _op. cit._, I,
549), Shipley lent sanction to colonial resistance. Franklin...

Page 782

...American war, at L30 a head, thus
making the total number lost to be 15,700 men."...

Page 783

...can well be, that is not printed; but I could not dream
of its being heard...

Page 784

...whom America has yet produced." Missing
the irony of Franklin's burlesque, however, Arnold exclaimed after
reading the...

Page 785

...summary of the effect of this hoax may be found in L.
S. Livingston, _Franklin and...

Page 786

...but cannot possibly be reduced into practice?" (Mirabeau, _op.
cit._, 73.) The members of the order...

Page 787

...1788), "The wisest must agree to some unreasonable things,
that reasonable ones of more consequence may...

Page 788

...other times
and nations, than his _Parable against Persecution_. And as the latter
led many persons to...

Page 789

...a Wharff)
p. 16, "Shaftsbury" to "Shaftesbury" (33) (reading Shaftesbury and
...

Page 790

...(1)

"Edinborough" (1) and "Edinburgh" (9)
"Eliptic" (1) and "Eliptick" (1)
...

Page 791

..."Newswriters" (1)
"nonsense" (5) and "nonsence" (1)

*"obtain" (28) and "obteyn"...

Page 792

...footPath, JourneyMen, mySelf, thySelf, etc., and have been retained.

11. Words spelled with a macron (straight...