Printers and Printing_ (London, 1839),
[i-168] R. A. Austen Leigh, "William Strahan and His Ledgers," in
_Transactions of the Bibliographical Society_, N. S. III, 286. For
Strahan see also Spottiswoode & Co.'s _The Story of a Printing House,
Being a Short Account of the Strahans and Spottiswoodes_ (London,
1911); and Timperley, _op. cit._, 754-6.
[i-169] See G. S. Eddy, "Correspondence Between Dr. Benjamin Franklin
and John Walter, Regarding the Logographic Process of Printing,"
_Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society_, N. S. XXXVIII,
349-69 (Oct., 1928).
[i-170] _Writings_, II, 175.
[i-171] See W. P. and J. P. Cutler, _Life, Journals and Correspondence
of Rev. Manasseh Cutler_, I, 269, letter of July 13, 1787; also G. S.
Eddy, _op. cit._
[i-172] See Thomas, _loc. cit._
[i-173] A notable exception was the type of "letter to the editor"
which Franklin used as a means of suggesting reforms, such as those
affecting the city watch, the fire companies, and the cleaning and
lighting of the streets. See J. B. McMaster, _Benjamin Franklin as a
Man of Letters_, 82-5.
[i-174] A correspondent of Franklin's paper commended Zenger's stand
(see _Pennsylvania Gazette_, May 11-18, 1738; reprinted in W. G.
Bleyer, _Main Currents in the History of American Journalism_, 66-7),
but Franklin shrewdly kept his own paper free of factional politics.
See Livingston Rutherford, _John Peter Zenger_ (New York, 1904).
[i-175] See Clarence S. Brigham, "American Newspapers to 1820,"
_Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society_, N. S. XXXII, 157-9
(April, 1922), for detailed bibliography of the _Gazette_.
[i-176] A. H. Smyth, _Philadelphia Magazines and Their Contributors_,
[i-177] _Writings_, I, 360.
[i-178] For a list of the printers with whom Franklin had such
connections, see M. R. King, "One Link in the First Newspaper Chain,
the _South Carolina Gazette," Journalism Quarterly_, IX, 257 (Sept.,
[i-179] For sketches of both magazines, see L. N. Richardson, _A
History of Early American Magazines_, 17-35, and F. L. Mott, _A
History of American Magazines_, 1741-1850, 71-7. See also Philip
Biddison, "The Magazine Franklin Failed to Remember," _American
Literature_, IV, 177 (June, 1932); the writer thinks certain
accusations in the Bradford-Franklin controversy over the magazines
discreditable to Franklin, so that the latter's lapse of memory saved
[i-180] See letter to John Wright, Nov. 4, 1789 (_Writings_, X, 60-3).
For European backgrounds of Franklin's economic views see Gide and
Rist, in Bibliography. On American backgrounds the standard work is E.
A. J. Johnson's _American Economic Thought in the Seventeenth Century_
(London, 1932), which shows the intimate relation between economic and
[i-181] Lewis J. Carey, _Franklin's Economic Views_ (Garden City, N.
Y., 1928), 72.
[i-182] Cited in Carey, 73. He had used in this article facts lent by
He had printed an address of the house to the governor in a coarse, blundering manner; we reprinted it elegantly and correctly, and sent one to every member.Page 57
Many of our Welsh people are going to settle in North Carolina, where land is cheap.Page 80
--Avoid extremes: forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve.Page 83
Proceeding thus to the last, I could get through a course complete in thirteen weeks, and four courses in a year.Page 109
In the evening, hearing a great noise among them, the commissioners walked to see what was the matter; we found they had made a great bonfire in the middle of the square: they were all drunk, men and women, quarrelling and fighting.Page 111
I thought it would be unbecoming in me, after their kind compliance with my solicitation, to mark them out to be worried by other beggars, and therefore refused to give such a list.Page 115
Thus, if you teach a poor young man to shave himself and keep his razor in order, you may contribute more to the happiness of his life than in giving him a thousand guineas.Page 129
It was the beginning of January when we set out upon this business of building forts; I sent one detachment towards the Minisink, with instructions to erect one for the security of that upper part of the country, and another to the lower part with similar instructions; and I concluded to go myself with the rest of my force to Gnadenhutten,.Page 149
He engaged in a course of electrical experiments with all the ardour and thirst for discovery which characterized the philosophers of that day.Page 151
The effect of these, he concluded, would be either to prevent a stroke by repelling the cloud beyond the striking distance, or by drawing off the electrical fire which it contained; or, if they could not effect this, they would at least conduct the electric matter to the earth, without injury to the building.Page 173
assemblies, and discovered an aptitude in his remarks on all occasions.Page 179
"All the directions herein given respecting the disposition and management of the donation to the inhabitants of Boston, I would have observed respecting that to the inhabitants of Philadelphia; only, as Philadelphia is incorporated, I request the corporation of that city to undertake the management agreeably to the said directions, and I do hereby vest them with full and ample powers for that purpose.Page 181
of Liberty, I give to my friend and the friend of mankind, General Washington.Page 183
_ Certainly, many, and very heavy taxes.Page 187
_ No, they will never submit to it.Page 198
_ Are not ferrymen in America obliged, by act of Parliament, to carry over the posts without pay? _A.Page 210
" Now I am about to mention something of Indians, I beg that I may not be understood as framing apologies for _all_ Indians.Page 213
Fly where.Page 217
We indeed seem to _feel_ our own want of political wisdom, since we have been running all about in search of it.Page 219
As the colonies could not choose "_another_ tax" while they disclaimed _every_ tax, the Parliament passed the stamp-act.