E. Merriam states that "The storm centre
of the democratic movement during the colonial period was the conflict
between the governors and the colonial legislatures or assemblies" (_A
History of American Political Theories_, 34). Also see E. B. Greene,
_The Provincial Governor in the English Colonies of North America_.
[i-258] _Writings_, III, 71.
[i-259] Cited in G. L. Beer, _British Colonial Policy_, 1754-1765, 17.
[i-260] _Writings_, III, 197.
[i-261] For a suggestive source study see Mrs. L. K. Mathews's
"Benjamin Franklin's Plans for a Colonial Union, 1750-1775," _American
Political Science Review_, VIII, 393-412 (Aug., 1914).
[i-262] Cited in Beer, _op. cit._, 49.
[i-263] _Writings_, III, 242.
[i-264] _Ibid._, III, 226. As Beer has pointed out (_op. cit._, 23
note), since the plan was not ratified, it never went before the
Crown; hence Franklin's retrospective glance is misleading: "The Crown
disapproved it, as having placed too much Weight in the Democratic
Part of the Constitution; and every Assembly as having allowed too
much to Prerogative. So it was totally rejected" (_Writings_, III,
[i-265] _Ibid._, III, 233.
[i-266] To Peter Collinson, Nov. 22, 1756 (_Writings_, III, 351).
[i-267] As A. H. Smyth says, this was probably _inspired_ by Franklin
although not written by him; at any rate "it undoubtedly reflects" his
opinions (III, vi). Isaac Sharpless observes that Franklin "had
sympathy with their [Quakers'] demands for political freedom, but none
for their non-military spirit" (_Political Leaders of Provincial
Pennsylvania_, New York, 1919, 178).
[i-268] _Writings_, III, 372.
[i-269] A. Bradford, _Memoir of the Life and Writings of Rev. J.
Mayhew_ (Boston, 1838), 119.
[i-270] See for capable studies: B. F. Wright, _American
Interpretations of Natural Law_; C. F. Mullett, _Fundamental Law and
the American Revolution_; D. G. Ritchie, _Natural Rights_ (London,
1895), and his "Contributions to the History of the Social Contract
Theory," _Political Science Quarterly_, VI, 656-76 (1891); C. Becker,
_The Declaration of Independence_, chap. II; C. E. Merriam, _op.
cit._, chap. II; H. J. Laski, _Political Thought in England from Locke
to Bentham_ (New York, 1920).
[i-271] Becker, _op. cit._, 24.
[i-272] _Ibid._, 27.
[i-273] Burke said that nearly as many copies of this work were sold
in the colonies as in Great Britain. It will be remembered that
Hamilton leaned heavily on Blackstone in _The Farmer Refuted_ (1773).
[i-274] Cited in Wright, _op. cit._, 11.
[i-275] _The Farmer Refuted._ For discussion of changes in Hamilton's
political theory see F. C. Prescott's Introduction to _Hamilton and
Jefferson_ (American Writers Series, New York, 1934).
[i-276] Franklin acknowledges his close reading of Locke's _Essay
Concerning Human Understanding_ (_Writings_, I, 243). In 1749 he urges
that Locke be read in the Philadelphia Academy (II, 387) and refers
again to the great logician in
Virtue and Innocence, a Poem 1 0 The Economy of Human Life 1 0 Old Friends in a New Dress, or Selections from Esop's Fables, in Verse, 2 parts, plates 2 0 Little Jack Horner, in Verse, plain 1s.Page 2
We are taxed twice as much by our idleness, three times as much by our pride, and four times as much by our folly; and from these taxes the commissioners cannot ease or deliver us by allowing an abatement.Page 3
" Nor will the bailiff or the constable enter, for "industry pays debts, while despair increaseth them.Page 4
" 'And again, "The eye of the master will do more work than both his hands:" and again, "Want of care does us more damage than want of knowledge;" and again, "Not to oversee workmen, is to leave them your purse open.Page 5
" [Illustration: Published by W.Page 6
Perhaps they have had a small estate left them, which they knew not the getting of; they think "it is day, and will never be night:" that a little to be spent out of so much is not worth minding; but "Always taking out of the meal-tub, and never putting in, soon comes to the bottom," as Poor Richard says; and then, "When the well is dry, they know the worth of water.Page 7
Darton, Junr.Page 8
" However, remember this, "They that will not be counselled cannot be helped;" and farther, that "If you will not hear Reason, she will surely rap your knuckles," as Poor.Page 9
' * * * * * Thus the old gentleman ended his harangue.