Benjamin Franklin Representative selections, with introduction, bibliograpy, and notes

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 114

(Lincoln, _op. cit._, 282; see also 283). The
American Philosophical Society, of which Franklin was president,
declared against it.

[i-327] T. F. Moran, _The Rise and Development of the Bicameral System
in America_ (Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and
Political Science, 13th ser., V [Baltimore, 1895]), 42. The
legislative Council (upper chamber) had been destroyed by the 1701
constitution. See B. A. Konkle, _George Bryan and the Constitution of
Pennsylvania_ (Philadelphia, 1922), 114. P. L. Ford ("The Adoption of
the Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776," _Political Science Quarterly_,
X, Sept., 1895, 426-59) observes: "The one-chamber legislature and the
annual election were hardly the work of the Convention, for they were
merely transferred from the Penn Charter; having yielded such
admirable results in the past, it is not strange that they were
grafted into the new instrument" (p. 454).

[i-328] Defending (in 1789) the Pennsylvania constitution, Franklin
wrote, "Have we not experienced in this Colony, when a Province under
the Government of the Proprietors, the Mischiefs of a second Branch
existing in the Proprietary Family, countenanced and aided by an
Aristocratic Council?" (_Writings_, X, 56.)

[i-329] In 1775 he submitted to the Second Continental Congress his
_Articles of Confederation_ (_Writings_, VI, 420-6) which called for a
"firm League of Friendship" motivated by a unicameral assembly and a
plural executive, a Council of twelve. It was democratic also in its
"basing representation upon population instead of financial support"
(Eiselen, _op. cit._, 54).

[i-330] _Writings_, VII, 48.

[i-331] _Ibid._, VII, 23. No dull sidelight on the quality of
Franklin's radicalism during this period is the fact that he brought
Thomas Paine to the colonies and was partly responsible for the
writing of _Common Sense_. It is alleged that Franklin considered
Paine "his adopted political son" (cited in M. D. Conway's _Life of
Thomas Paine_, 3d ed., New York, 1893, II, 468). For explication of
Paine's political theories see C. E. Merriam, "Political Theories of
Thomas Paine," _Political Science Quarterly_, XIV, 389-403.

[i-332] Hale and Hale, _op. cit._, I, 70; see also 75.

[i-333] _Ibid._, I, 32.

[i-334] Cited in J. B. Perkins, _France in the American Revolution_,
140.

[i-335] _Ibid._, 127.

[i-336] See D. J. Hill, "A Missing Chapter of Franco-American
History," _American Historical Review_, XXI, 709-19, (July, 1916).

[i-337] _Ibid._, 710.

[i-338] _Writings_, IX, 132. The Due de la Rochefoucauld translated
them into French (IX, 71). Franklin thought they would induce
emigration to the colonies. See the scores of requests (on the part of
notable Frenchmen) and thanks for copies of the constitutions of the
United States listed in _Calendar of the Papers of Benjamin Franklin
in the Library of the American Philosophical Society_.

[i-339] J. S. Schapiro, _Condorcet and the

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Text Comparison with A Book of Gems Choice selections from the writings of Benjamin Franklin

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