Benjamin Franklin Representative selections, with introduction, bibliograpy, and notes

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 116

to Beccaria in 1773
(_ibid._, VI, 112). Also see V, 206, 410-1, VII, 49.

[i-374] _Ibid._, VII, 418; also see VIII, 211.

[i-375] _Ibid._, VIII, 315; also see letter to Priestley, June 7,
1782, VIII, 451; to Comte de Salmes, July 5, 1785, IX, 361.

[i-376] _Ibid._, IX, 652.

[i-377] _Ibid._, IX, 621. He wrote this after he was reappointed
President of Pennsylvania in 1787. He confessed, however, that this
honor gave him "no small pleasure."

[i-378] W. P. and J. P. Cutler, _Life, Journals and Correspondence of
Rev. Manasseh Cutler_, I, 269-70.

[i-379] _Joseph and Benjamin, A Conversation_, Trans. from a French
Manuscript (London, 1787), 72. If this meeting never took place, the
reported conversation is anything but "decidedly silly" as Ford opines
(_Franklin Bibliography_, #936, 371).

[i-380] _Writings_, IV, 143.

[i-381] _Ibid._, VIII, 601. Also see IX, 53.

[i-382] _Ibid._, VIII, 593.

[i-383] Brother Potamian and J. J. Walsh, _Makers of Electricity_,
126.

[i-384] "Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden, IV (1748-54),"
_Collections of the New York Historical Society_ (1920), 372.

[i-385] "An Outline of Philosophy in America," _Western Reserve
University Bulletin_ (March, 1896). See also I. W. Riley, _American
Philosophy: The Early Schools_, 229-65.

[i-386] _Franklin, the Apostle of Modern Times_, iv.

[i-387] _Writings_, I, 295.

[i-388] _Boston News-Letter_, Jan. 17, 1744/5. Also see 1669-1882. _An
Historical Catalogue of the Old South Church (Third Church), Boston_
(Boston, 1883), 304.

[i-389] _Writings_, I, 324.

[i-390] _Writings_, IX, 208.

[i-391] _Essays to do Good_, with an Introductory Essay by A. Thomson
(Glasgow, 1825), 102.

[i-392] _Ibid._, 213-4.

[i-393] _Works of Daniel Defoe_, ed. by Wm. Hazlitt (London, 1843), I,
22.

[i-394] _Writings_, I, 239.

[i-395] See _New England Courant_, No. 48, June 25-July 2, 1722.

[i-396] _Writings_, I, 244.

[i-397] Consecrated to piety, Robert Boyle at his death left L50 per
annum, for a clergyman elected to "preach eight sermons in the year
for proving the Christian religion against notorious infidels, _viz._
Atheists, Theists, Pagans, Jews, and Mahometans...." (_Works of Robert
Boyle_, London, 1772, I, clxvii.)

[i-398] _Writings_, I, 295.

[i-399] In his Introduction to _Selections from Cotton Mather_ (New
York, 1926), xlix-li, K. B. Murdock agrees with I. W. Riley that _The
Christian Philosopher_ (1721) represents the first stage of the
reaction from scriptural Calvinism to the scientific deism of Paine
and Franklin. T. Hornberger's "The Date, the Source, and the
Significance of Cotton Mather's Interest in Science" (_loc. cit._)
shows that "as early as 1693 Cotton Mather was expressing that delight
in the wonder and beauty of design in the external world which
Professors Murdock and Riley regard as deistic in tendency," that he
"was unconsciously vacillating between two points of view."

[i-400] _Works of Richard Bentley_, ed. by A. Dyce (London, 1838),
III,

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Text Comparison with Experiments and Observations on Electricity Made at Philadelphia in America

Page 2
2.
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LETTER II.
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less, according to the quantity of Electricity.
Page 10
_ We suppose it was _driven off_, and not brought on thro' that wire; and that the machine and man, _&c.
Page 13
But suspend two or more phials on the prime conductor, one hanging to the tail of the other; and a wire from the last to the floor, an equal number of turns of the wheel shall charge them all equally, and every one as much as one alone would have been.
Page 19
As the glass is thickest near the orifice, I suppose the lower half, which being gilt was electrified, and gave the shock, did not exceed two grains; for it appeared, when broke, much thinner than the upper half.
Page 21
3.
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.
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Take two round pieces of pasteboard two inches diameter; from the center and circumference of each of them suspend by fine silk threads eighteen inches long, seven small balls of wood, or seven peas equal in bigness; so will the balls appending to each pasteboard, form equal equilateral triangles, one ball being in the center, and six at equal distances from that, and from each other; and thus they represent particles of air.
Page 26
For the electrical fire is never visible but when in.
Page 30
Hence the appearing divergency in a stream of electrified effluvia.
Page 32
From a cube it is more easily drawn at the corners than at the plane sides, and so from the angles of a body of any other form, and still most easily from the angle that is most acute.
Page 34
and receive what is so discharged.
Page 35
is it of much importance to us, to know the manner in which nature executes her laws; 'tis enough if we know the laws themselves.
Page 41
By a little practice in blunting or sharpening the heads or tails of these figures, you may make them take place as desired, nearer, or farther from the electrified plate.
Page 42
And yet the bottle by this means is charged![9] And therefore the fire that thus leaves.
Page 46
But thus it may: after every stroke, before you pass your hand up to make another, let the second person apply his finger to the wire, take the spark, and then withdraw his finger; and so on till he has drawn a number of sparks; thus will the inner surface be exhausted, and the outer surface charged; then wrap a sheet of gilt paper close round the outer surface, and grasping it in your hand you may receive a shock by applying the finger of the other hand to the wire: for now the vacant pores in the inner surface resume their quantity, and the overcharg'd pores in the outer surface discharge that overplus; the equilibrium being restored through your body, which could not be restored through the glass.
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35.
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For though the effluvia of cinnamon, and the electrical fluid should mix within the globe, they would never come out together through the pores of the glass, and so go to the prime conductor; for the electrical fluid itself cannot come through; and the prime conductor is always supply'd from the cushion, and that from the floor.
Page 50
If the phial really exploded at both ends, and discharged fire from both coating and wire, the balls would be _more_ electrified and recede _farther_: for none of the fire can escape, the wax handle preventing.