Experiments and Observations on Electricity Made at Philadelphia in America

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 11

the fire appears every where upon the gold like a
flash of lightning: not upon the leather, nor, if you touch the leather
instead of the gold. We rub our tubes with buckskin, and observe always to
keep the same side to the tube, and never to sully the tube by handling;
thus they work readily and easily, without the least fatigue; especially if
kept in tight pastboard cases, lined with flannel, and fitting closeto the
tube.[2]--This I mention because the _European_ papers, on Electricity,
frequently speak of rubbing the tube, as a fatiguing exercise. Our spheres
are fixed on iron axes, which pass through them. At one end of the axis
there is a small handle, with which we turn the sphere like a common
grindstone. This we find very commodious, as the machine takes up but
little room, is portable, and may be enclosed in a tight box, when not in
use. 'Tis true, the sphere does not turn so swift, as when the great wheel
is used: but swiftness we think of little importance, since a few turns
will charge the phial, _&c._ sufficiently.

_I am_, &c.

B. FRANKLIN.

[Illustration]




LETTER III.

FROM

Mr BENJ. FRANKLIN, in _Philadelphia_.

TO

Mr PETER COLLINSON, F.R.S. _London_.


_Farther_ EXPERIMENTS _and_ OBSERVATIONS _in_ ELECTRICITY.


_1748._

_SIR_,

s 1. There will be the same explosion and shock, if the electrified phial
is held in one hand by the hook, and the coating touch'd with the other, as
when held by the coating, and touch'd at the hook.

2. To take the charg'd phial safely by the hook, and not at the same time
diminish its force, it must first be set down on an electric _per se_.

3. The phial will be electrified as strongly, if held by the hook, and the
coating apply'd to the globe or tube; as when held by the coating, and the
hook apply'd.

4. But the _direction_ of the electrical fire being different in the
charging, will also be different in the explosion. The bottle charged thro'
the hook, will be discharged thro' the hook; the bottle charged thro' the
coating, will be discharged thro' the coating, and not other ways: for the
fire must come out the same way it went in.

5. To prove this; take two bottles that were equally charged thro' the
hooks, one in each hand; bring their hooks near each other, and no spark or
shock will follow; because each hook is disposed to give fire, and neither
to receive it. Set one of the bottles down on glass, take it up by the
hook, and apply its coating to the

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Text Comparison with The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 3 [of 3]

Page 44
Yet the proprietaries resolved to deprive the assemblies of the power and means of _supporting an agent_ in England, and of prosecuting their complaints and remonstrating their aggrievances, when injured and oppressed, to his majesty and his parliament: and to rob them of this natural right (which has been so often approved of by their gracious sovereign) have, by their said instructions, prohibited their governor from giving his assent to any laws emitting or re-emitting any paper-currency or bills of credit, or for raising money by excise or any other method; unless the governor or commander in chief for the time being, by clauses to be inserted therein, has _a negative in the disposition_ of the monies arising thereby; let the languishing circumstances of our trade be ever so great, and a further or greater medium be ever so necessary for its support.
Page 57
The address of the assembly to the governor.
Page 134
They, who have been these twenty years cursing our constitution, declaring that it was no constitution, or worse than none; and that things could never be well with us till it was new modelled, and made exactly conformable to the British constitution: they, who have treated our distinguishing privileges as so many illegalities and absurdities; who have solemnly declared in print, that though such privileges might be proper in the infancy of a colony to encourage its settlement, they became unfit for it in its grown state, and ought to be taken away: they, who by numberless falshoods, propagated with infinite industry in the mother country, attempted to procure an act of parliament for the actual depriving a very great part of the people of their privileges: they too, who have already deprived the whole people of some of their most important rights, and are daily endeavouring to deprive them of the rest: are these become patriots and advocates for our constitution? Wonderful change! astonishing conversion! Will the wolves.
Page 154
" _Votes_, 1763.
Page 158
B.
Page 159
LA BAY.
Page 197
[84] "The stamp act says, that the Americans shall have no commerce, make no exchange of property with each other, neither purchase nor grant nor recover debts; they shall neither marry nor make their wills, unless they pay such and such sums" in _specie_ for the stamps which must give validity to the proceedings.
Page 199
Until 1763, and the years following, whenever Great Britain wanted supplies directly from the colonies, the secretary of state, in his majesty's name, sent them a letter of requisition, in which the occasion for the supplies was expressed; and the colonies returned a _free gift_, the mode of levying which _they_ wholly prescribed.
Page 205
I therefore think, that on a total repeal of all duties, laid expressly for the purpose of raising a revenue on the people of America without their consent, the present uneasiness would subside; the agreements not to import would be dissolved; and the commerce flourish as heretofore; and I am confirmed in this sentiment by all the letters I have received from America, and by the opinions of all the sensible people who have lately come from thence, crown-officers excepted.
Page 209
They would still have adhered to the present family as long as they could.
Page 229
B.
Page 284
grow, the more apt I am to doubt my own judgment, and to pay more respect to the judgment of others.
Page 300
But as I have many things of more consequence to offer the public, I declare, that I will never, after this time, take notice of any accusations, not better supported with truth and reason; much less may every little scribbler, that shall attack me, expect an answer from the Busy-Body.
Page 338
If it was in some nook or alley in Paris, deprived of walks, that you played awhile at chess after dinner, this.
Page 358
This, I believe, will be the case, if you have timely notice.
Page 382
credit of, with that of Britain, in 1777, compared, 372.
Page 390
56, 77.
Page 391
_Duna_ river, not to be confounded with the Dwina, iii.
Page 419
550*.
Page 422
'Lower Countries' replaced by 'Lower Counties'.