Experiments and Observations on Electricity Made at Philadelphia in America

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 13

the bottle by one
part, and did not enter in again by another; then, if a man standing on
wax, and holding the bottle in one hand, takes the spark by touching the
wire hook with the other, the bottle being thereby _discharged_, the man
would be _charged_; or whatever fire was lost by one, would be found in the
other, since there is no way for its escape: But the contrary is true.

9. Besides the phial will not suffer what is called a _charging_, unless as
much fire can go out of it one way, as is thrown in by another. A phial
cannot be charged standing on wax or glass, or hanging on the prime
conductor, unless a communication be form'd between its coating and the

10. But suspend two or more phials on the prime conductor, one hanging to
the tail of the other; and a wire from the last to the floor, an equal
number of turns of the wheel shall charge them all equally, and every one
as much as one alone would have been. What is driven out at the tail of the
first, serving to charge the second; what is driven out of the second
charging the third; and so on. By this means a great number of bottles
might be charged with the same labour, and equally high, with one alone,
were it not that every bottle receives new fire, and loses its old with
some reluctance, or rather gives some small resistance to the charging,
which in a number of bottles becomes more equal to the charging power, and
so repels the fire back again on the globe, sooner than a single bottle
would do.

11. When a bottle is charged in the common way, its _inside_ and _outside_
surfaces stand ready, the one to give fire by the hook, the other to
receive it by the coating; the one is full, and ready to throw out, the
other empty and extremely hungry; yet as the first will not _give out_,
unless the other can at the same instant _receive in_; so neither will the
latter receive in, unless the first can at the same instant give out. When
both can be done at once, 'tis done with inconceivable quickness and

12. So a strait spring (tho' the comparison does not agree in every
particular) when forcibly bent, must, to restore itself, contract that side
which in the bending was extended, and extend that which was contracted; if
either of these two operations be hindered, the other cannot be done. But
the spring

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Text Comparison with Memoirs of Benjamin Franklin; Written by Himself. [Vol. 1 of 2] With His Most Interesting Essays, Letters, and Miscellaneous Writings; Familiar, Moral, Political, Economical, and Philosophical, Selected with Care from All His Published Productions, and Comprising Whatever Is Most Entertaining and Valuable to the General Reader

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Abel James 91 Letter from Mr.
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He was a skilful master, and successful in his profession, employing the mildest and most encouraging methods.
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My proposal was to build a wharf there for us to stand upon, and I showed my comrades a large heap of stones, which were intended for a new house near the marsh, and which would very well suit our purpose.
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My mother had likewise an excellent constitution: she suckled all her ten children.
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After some time a merchant, an ingenious, sensible man, Mr.
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Ralph was ingenuous, genteel in his manners, and extremely eloquent; I think I never knew a prettier talker.
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Andrew Hamilton, a celebrated lawyer of Philadelphia, had taken his passage in the same ship for himself and son, with Mr.
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We gave bail, but saw that, if the money could not be raised in time, the suit must soon come to a judgment and execution, and our hopeful prospects must with us be ruined, as the press and letters must be sold for payment, perhaps at half price.
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Some think we are of a French extract, which was formerly called Franks; some of a free line; a line free from that vassalage which was common to subjects in days of old; some from a bird of long red legs.
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The project was approved, and every member undertook to form his club: but they did not all succeed.
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This for some time gave an easy access to the market dry shod; but the rest of the street not being paved, whenever a carriage came out of the mud upon this pavement, it shook off and left its dirt upon it, and it was soon covered with mire, which was not removed, the city as yet having no scavengers.
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The first night, lying in a good bed, I could hardly sleep, it was so different from my hard lodging on the floor of a hut at Gnadenhutten, with only a blanket or two.
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I apprehend that this may partly be occasioned by the different opinions of seamen respecting the modes of loading, rigging, and sailing of a ship; each has his method; and the same vessel, laden by the method and orders of one captain, shall sail worse than when by the orders of another.
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"The stone, with which he had been afflicted for several years, had for the last twelve months confined him chiefly to his bed; and during the extreme painful paroxysms, he was obliged to take large doses of laudanum to mitigate his tortures; still, in the intervals of pain, he not only amused himself with reading and conversing cheerfully with his family, and a few friends who visited him, but was often employed in doing business of a public as well as private nature, with various persons who waited on him for that purpose; and in every instance displayed not only that readiness and disposition of doing good which was the distinguishing characteristic of his life, but the fullest and clearest possession of his uncommon mental abilities, and not unfrequently indulged himself in those _jeux d'esprit_ and entertaining anecdotes which were the delight of all who heard him.
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The assembly adopted it, at first by acclamation; and afterward decreed, by a large majority, amid the plaudits of all the spectators, that on Monday 14th of June, it should go into mourning for three days; that the discourse of M.
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And having considered that the covering its ground-plat with buildings and pavements, which carry off most of the rain, and prevent its soaking into the earth, and renewing and purifying the springs, whence the water of the wells must gradually grow worse, and, in time, be unfit for use, as I find has happened in all old cities, I recommend that, at the end of the first hundred years, if not done before, the corporation of the city employ a part of the hundred thousand pounds in bringing by pipes the water of Wissahiccon Creek into the town, so as to supply the inhabitants, which I apprehend may be done without great difficulty, the level of that creek being much above that of the city, and may be made higher by a dam.
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_[18] 1766, Feb.
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