Memoirs of Benjamin Franklin; Written by Himself. [Vol. 1 of 2] With His Most Interesting Essays, Letters, and Miscellaneous Writings; Familiar, Moral, Political, Economical, and Philosophical, Selected with Care from All His Published Productions, and Comprising Whatever Is Most Entertaining and Valuable to the General Reader

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 157

ambitious of calling him a member. The University of
St. Andrew, in Scotland, conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of
Laws. Its example was followed by the Universities of Edinburgh and
Oxford. His correspondence was sought for by the most eminent
philosophers of Europe. His letters to these abound with true science,
delivered in the most simple, unadorned manner.

The province of Canada was at this time in the possession of the French,
who had originally settled it. The trade with the Indians, for which its
situation was very convenient, was exceedingly lucrative. The French
traders here found a market for their commodities, and received in
return large quantities of rich furs, which they disposed of at a high
price in Europe. While the possession of this country was highly
advantageous to France, it was a grievous inconvenience to the
inhabitants of the British colonies. The Indians were almost generally
desirous to cultivate the friendship of the French, by whom they were
abundantly supplied with arms and ammunition. Whenever a war happened,
the Indians were ready to fall upon the frontiers; and this they
frequently did, even when Great Britain and France were at peace. From
these considerations, it appeared to be the interest of Great Britain to
gain the possession of Canada. But the importance of such an acquisition
was not well understood in England. Franklin about this time published
his Canada pamphlet, in which he, in a very forcible manner, pointed out
the advantages which would result from the conquest of this province.

An expedition against it was planned, and the command given to General
Wolfe. His success is well known. At the treaty in 1762, France ceded
Canada to Great Britain; and by her cession of Louisiana, at the same
time, relinquished all her possessions on the continent of America.

Although Dr. Franklin was now principally occupied with political
pursuits, he found time for philosophical studies. He extended his
electrical researches, and made a variety of experiments, particularly
on the tourmalin. The singular properties which this stone possesses, of
being electrified on one side positively, and on the other negatively,
by heat alone, without friction, had been but lately observed.

Some experiments on the cold produced by evaporation, made by Dr.
Cullen, had been communicated to Dr. Franklin by Professor Simpson, of
Glasgow. These he repeated, and found that, by the evaporation of ether
in the exhausted receiver of an airpump, so great a degree of cold was
produced in a summer's day, that water was converted into ice. This
discovery he applied to the solution of a number of phenomena,
particularly a single fact,

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Text Comparison with The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 3 [of 3]

Page 0
letter to Governor Shirley, concerning the imposition of direct taxes.
Page 1
Letter to the same; concerning direct taxes in the colonies imposed without consent, indirect taxes, and the Albany plan of union 31 III.
Page 90
There are even those, who, being present, can sympathize sincerely with the grief of a lady on the sudden death of a favourite bird; and yet can read of the sinking of a city in Syria with very.
Page 113
By this means numbers of people became usurers with small sums, who could not have found persons to take such sums of them upon interest, giving good security; and would therefore not have thought of it; but would rather have employed the money in some business, if it had been money of the common kind.
Page 149
Allen:[70] intelligence was received by various hands from London, that orders were sent by the proprietaries, from which great hopes were entertained of an accommodation.
Page 177
_ Do not you think the people of America would submit to pay the stamp duty, if it was moderated? _A.
Page 183
_ No.
Page 209
_It is doubted, whether any act of parliament should_ of right _operate in the colonies_: in fact _several of than have and do operate_.
Page 254
I had the misfortune to find these expectations disappointed, and to be treated as the cause of the mischief I was labouring to.
Page 266
So I thought to myself, since I cannot do any business to-day, I may as well go to the meeting too, and I went with him.
Page 270
Things, actions, measures, and objects of all kinds, present themselves to the minds of men in such a variety of lights, that it is not possible we should all think alike at the same time on every subject, when hardly the same man retains at all times the same ideas of it.
Page 289
Page 337
The case is, when the person, who desires to have pleasant dreams, has not taken care to preserve, what is necessary above all things, A GOOD CONSCIENCE.
Page 339
_--No, sir, no--I will not abate a particle of what is so much for your good--therefore-- _Franklin.
Page 364
_ MY DEAR OLD FRIEND, I received your kind letter of May 3, 1783.
Page 379
But he assured me, that he did not even know that such letters existed, till they were brought to him as agent for the colony, in order to be sent to his constituents; and the cover of the letters on which the direction had been written, being lost, he only guessed at the person to whom they were addressed, by the contents.
Page 385
Page 396
169, 170.
Page 407
119, note.
Page 416
209, 211.