Memoirs of Benjamin Franklin; Written by Himself. [Vol. 1 of 2] With His Most Interesting Essays, Letters, and Miscellaneous Writings; Familiar, Moral, Political, Economical, and Philosophical, Selected with Care from All His Published Productions, and Comprising Whatever Is Most Entertaining and Valuable to the General Reader

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 195

that; they esteemed their sovereign's approbation of
their zeal and fidelity, and the approbation of this house, far beyond
any other kind of compensation; therefore there was no occasion for this
act to force money from a willing people: they had not refused giving
money for the _purposes_ of the act, no requisition had been made, they
were always willing and ready to do what could reasonably be expected
from them, and in this light they wish to be considered.

_Q._ But suppose Great Britain should be engaged in a _war in Europe_,
would North America contribute to the support of it?

_A._ I do think they would, as far as their circumstances would permit.
They consider themselves as a part of the British empire, and as having
one common interest with it: they may be looked on here as foreigners,
but they do not consider themselves as such. They are zealous for the
honour and prosperity of this nation; and, while they are well used,
will always be ready to support it, as far as their little power goes.
In 1739 they were called upon to assist in the expedition against
Carthagena, and they sent three thousand men to join your army. It is
true Carthagena is in America, but as remote from the northern colonies
as if it had been in Europe. They make no distinction of wars as to
their duty of assisting in them. I know the _last war_ is commonly
spoken of here as entered into for the defence, or for the sake of the
people in America. I think it is quite misunderstood. It began about the
limits between Canada and Nova Scotia; about territories to which the
_crown_ indeed laid claim, but which were not claimed by any British
_colony_; none of the lands had been granted to any colonist; we had,
therefore, no particular concern or interest in that dispute. As to the
Ohio, the contest there began about your right of trading in the Indian
country; a right you had by the treaty of Utrecht, which the French
infringed; they seized the traders and their goods, which were your
manufactures; they took a fort which a company of your merchants, and
their factors and correspondents, had erected there, to secure that
trade. Braddock was sent with an army to retake that fort (which was
looked on here as another encroachment on the king's territory) and to
protect your trade. It was not till after his defeat that the colonies
were attacked.[21] They were before in perfect peace with both French
and Indians; the troops were not,

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Text Comparison with Experiments and Observations on Electricity Made at Philadelphia in America

Page 1
_ _But of these, and many other interesting circumstances, the reader will be more satisfactorily informed in the following letters, to which he is therefore referred by_ _The_ EDITOR.
Page 5
EXPERIMENT X.
Page 7
--If a cork-ball so suspended be repelled by the tube, and a point be presented quick to it, tho' at a considerable distance, 'tis surprizing to see how suddenly it flies back to the tube.
Page 12
6.
Page 14
We judged then, that it must either be lost in decanting, or.
Page 17
a quire of paper is thought good armour against the push of a sword or even against a pistol bullet) and the crack is exceeding loud.
Page 22
The particles of air are said to be hard, round, separate and distant from each other; every particle strongly repelling every other particle, whereby they recede from each other, as far as common gravity will permit.
Page 23
Particles of water, having no fire in them, mutually attract each other.
Page 24
When a ridge of mountains thus dams the clouds, and draws the electrical fire from the cloud first approaching it; that which next follows, when it comes near the first cloud, now deprived of its fire, flashes into it, and begins to deposite its own water; the first cloud again flashing into the mountains; the third approaching cloud, and all the succeeding ones, acting in the same manner as far back as they extend, which may be over many hundred miles of country.
Page 25
Hence the sudden fall of rain immediately after flashes of lightning.
Page 28
Till lately we could only fire warm vapours; but now we can burn hard dry rosin.
Page 31
Apply the wire of a well-charged vial, held in your hand, to one of them (A) Fig.
Page 34
Thus a pin held by the head, and the point presented to an electrified body, will draw off its atmosphere at a foot distance; where if the head were presented instead of the point, no such effect would follow.
Page 38
The biggest animal we have yet killed or try'd to kill with the electrical stroke, was a well-grown pullet.
Page 41
You may make this figure so acute below and blunt above, as to need no under plate, it discharging fast enough into the air.
Page 42
greatest quantity.
Page 43
32.
Page 44
more of this electrical fluid than other common matter: That when it is blown, as it cools, and the particles of common fire leave it, its pores become a vacuum: That the component parts of glass are extremely small and fine, I guess from its never showing a rough face when it breaks, but always a polish; and from the smallness of its particles I suppose the pores between them must be exceeding small, which is the reason that Aqua-fortis, nor any other menstruum we have, can enter to separate them and dissolve the substance; nor is any fluid we know of, fine enough to enter, except common fire, and the electrical fluid.
Page 46
What is collected from the hand in the downward rubbing stroke, entering the pores of the glass, and driving an equal quantity out of the inner surface into the non-electric lining: and the hand in passing up to take a second stroke, takes out again what had been thrown into the outer surface, and then the inner surface receives back again what it had given to the non-electric lining.
Page 49
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT, _proving that the_ Leyden Bottle _has no more electrical Fire in it when charged, than before; nor less when discharged: That in discharging, the Fire does not issue from the Wire and the Coating at the same Time, as some have thought, but that the Coating always receives what is discharged by the Wire, or an equal Quantity; the outer Surface being always in a negative State of Electricity, when the inner Surface is in a positive State_.