Memoirs of Benjamin Franklin; Written by Himself. [Vol. 1 of 2] With His Most Interesting Essays, Letters, and Miscellaneous Writings; Familiar, Moral, Political, Economical, and Philosophical, Selected with Care from All His Published Productions, and Comprising Whatever Is Most Entertaining and Valuable to the General Reader

By Benjamin Franklin

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opinions; some say that it came from a sort of title of which a
book, that you bought when here, gives a lively account. Some think
we are of a French extract, which was formerly called Franks; some
of a free line; a line free from that vassalage which was common to
subjects in days of old; some from a bird of long red legs. Your
uncle Benjamin made inquiry of one skilled in heraldry, who told
him there is two coats of armour, one belonging to the Franklins of
the north, and one to the Franklins of the west. However, our
circumstances have been such as that it hath hardly been worth
while to concern ourselves much about these things, any farther
than to tickle the fancy a little.

The first that I can give account of is my great grandfather, as it
was a custom in those days among young men too many times to goe to
seek their fortune, and in his travels he went upon liking to a
taylor; but he kept such a stingy house, that he left him and
travelled farther, and came to a smith's house, and coming on a
fasting day, being in popish times, he did not like there the first
day; the next morning the servant was called up at five in the
morning, but after a little time came a good toast and good beer,
and he found good housekeeping there; he served and learned the
trade of a smith.

In Queen Mary's days, either his wife, or my grandmother by
father's side, informed my father that they kept their Bible
fastened under the top of a joint-stool that they might turn up the
book and read in the Bible; that, when anybody came to the dore,

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Text Comparison with Experiments and Observations on Electricity Made at Philadelphia in America

Page 1
The non-electric contain'd in the bottle differs when electrised from a non-electric electrised out of the bottle, in this: that the electrical fire of the latter is accumulated _on its surface_, and forms an electrical atmosphere round it of considerable extent: but the.
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When _minus_ (or when in the common state) it will attract them, but stronger when _minus_ than when in the common state, the difference being greater.
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He will continue this motion an hour or more in dry weather.
Page 15
We then took two plates of lead of equal dimensions, but less than the glass by two inches every way, and electrified the glass between them, by electrifying the uppermost lead; then separated the glass from the lead, in doing which, what little fire might be in the lead was taken out and the glass being touched in the electrified parts with a finger, afforded only very small pricking sparks, but a great number of them might be taken from different places.
Page 17
If now the wire of a bottle electrified in the common way, be brought near the circumference of this wheel, it will attract the nearest thimble, and so put the wheel in motion; that thimble, in passing by, receives a spark, and thereby being electrified is repelled and so driven forwards; while a second being attracted, approaches the wire, receives a spark, and is driven after the first, and so on till the wheel has gone once round, when the thimbles before electrified approaching the wire, instead of being attracted as they were at first, are repelled, and the motion presently ceases.
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it, did not seem in the least to retard its motion.
Page 23
One particle of air may be surrounded by twelve particles of water of equal size with itself, all in contact with it; and by more added to those.
Page 25
In the collision they shake off and drop their water, which represents rain.
Page 26
But if two gun-barrels electrified will strike at two inches distance, and make a loud snap, to what a great distance may 10,000 acres of electrified cloud strike and give its fire, and how loud must be that crack! 38.
Page 27
When there is great heat on the land, in a particular region (the sun having shone on it perhaps several days, while the surrounding countries have been screen'd by clouds) the lower air is rarified and rises, the cooler denser air above descends; the clouds in that air meet from all sides, and join over the heated place; and if some are electrified, others not, lightning and thunder succeed, and showers fall.
Page 33
Between F, A, H, there is a larger portion that has yet a less surface to rest on and to attract it; here therefore you can get it away still more easily.
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and receive what is so discharged.
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But, if the electrical fluid so easily pervades glass, how does the vial become _charged_ (as we term it) when we hold it in our hands? Would not the fire thrown in by the wire pass through to our hands, and so escape into the floor? Would not the bottle in that case be left just as we found it, uncharged, as we know a metal bottle so attempted to be charged would be? Indeed, if there be the least crack, the minutest solution of continuity in the glass, though it remains so tight that nothing else we know of will pass, yet the extremely subtile electrical fluid flies through such a crack with the greatest freedom, and such a bottle we know can never be charged: What then makes the difference between such a bottle and one that is sound, but this, that the fluid can pass through the one, and not through the other?[8] 29.
Page 43
By the word _surface_, in this case, I do not mean mere length and breadth without thickness; but when I speak of the upper or under surface of a piece of glass, the outer or inner surface of the vial, I mean length, breadth, and half the thickness, and beg the favour of being so understood.
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_ BOOKS Printed and Sold by EDWARD CAVE, at St.
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[10] In the dark the electrical fluid may be seen on the cushion in two semi-circles or half-moons, one on the fore part, the other on the back part of the cushion, just where the globe and cushion separate.