to dulness: drink not to elevation.
2. SILENCE.--Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself: avoid
3. ORDER.--Let all your things have their places: let each part of your
business have its time.
4. RESOLUTION.--Resolve to perform what you ought: perform without fail
what you resolve.
5. FRUGALITY.--Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself:
i.e., waste nothing.
6. INDUSTRY.--Lose no time: be always employed in something useful: cut
off all unnecessary actions.
7. SINCERITY.--Use no hurtful deceit: think innocently and justly: and,
if you speak, speak accordingly.
8. JUSTICE.--Wrong none by doing injuries, or omitting the benefits that
are your duty.
9. MODERATION.--Avoid extremes: forbear resenting injuries so much as
you think they deserve.
10. CLEANLINESS.--Tolerate no uncleanliness in body, clothes, or
11. TRANQUILLITY.--Be not disturbed at trifles, nor at accidents common
My intention being to acquire the _habitude_ of all these virtues, I
judged it would be well not to distract my attention by attempting the
whole at once, but to fix it on _one_ of them at a time; and when I
should be master of that, then to proceed to another; and so on till I
should have gone through the thirteen: and as the previous acquisition
of some might facilitate the acquisition of certain others, I arranged
them with that view as they stand above. _Temperance_ first, as it tends
to promote that coolness and clearness of head which is so necessary
where constant vigilance was to be kept up, and a guard maintained
against the unremitting attraction of ancient habits and the force of
perpetual temptations. This being acquired and established, _Silence_
would be more easy; and my desire being to gain knowledge at the same
time that I improved in virtue; and considering that in conversation it
was obtained rather by the use of the ear than of the tongue, and,
therefore, wishing to break a habit I was getting into of _prattling_,
_punning_, and _jesting_ (which only made me acceptable to trifling
company), I gave _Silence_ the second place. This and the next,
_Order_, I expected would allow me more time for attending to my project
and my studies _Resolution_, once become habitual, would keep me firm in
my endeavours to obtain all the subsequent virtues. _Frugality_ and
_Industry_, relieving me from my restraining debt, and producing
affluence and independence, would make more easy the practice of
_Sincerity_ and _Justice_, &c., &c. Conceiving then, that, agreeably to
the advice of Pythagoras in his Golden Verses, daily examination would
be necessary, I contrived the following method for conducting that
I made a little book, in which I allotted
116 On the theory of the earth 117 New and curious theory of light and heat 122 Queries and conjectures relating to magnetism and the theory of the earth 125 On the nature of sea coal 125 Effect of vegetation on noxious air 129 On the inflammability of the surface of certain rivers in America 130 On the different quantities of rain which fall at different heights over the same ground 133 Slowly sensible hygrometer proposed, for certain purposes 135 Curious instance of the effect of oil on water 142 Letters on the stilling of waves by means of oil .Page 33
Yet I should be glad to learn, by some accurate experiment, whether a draft of air, two or three times inspired, and expired, perhaps in a bladder, has, or has not, acquired more moisture than our common air in the dampest weather.Page 69
Several gentlemen were of opinion, that the separated particles of putrid, animal, and other bodies, floating on.Page 74
the knowledge and practice of essential duties, we deserve reprehension.Page 99
The following is a copy of that account.Page 116
But oil will not prevent waves being raised by another power, by a stone, for instance, falling into a still pool; for they then rise by the mechanical impulse of the stone, which the greasiness on the surrounding water cannot lessen or prevent, as it can prevent the winds catching the surface and raising it into waves.Page 121
Having since crossed this stream several times in passing between America and Europe, I have been attentive to sundry circumstances relating to it, by which to know when one is in it; and besides the gulph weed with which it is interspersed, I find that it is always warmer than the sea on each side of it, and that it does not sparkle in the night: I annex hereto the observations made with the thermometer in two voyages, and possibly may add a third.Page 140
But may there not be another cause, independent of winds and currents, why passages are generally shorter from America to Europe than from Europe to America? This question I formerly considered in the following short paper.Page 236
_ _In.Page 238
Then putting in the grate H, which rests on its.Page 240
If you find it clogged with cinders and ashes, turn it up with your tongs and let them fall upon the grate below; the ashes will go through it, and the cinders may be raked off and returned into the vase when you would burn them.Page 272
This shows the inconvenience of that pretended improvement.Page 285
plÏuman, Ïr Æi inhabitant Ïv e viledÔ».Page 305
The legislative power itself has been _in commercio_, and church livings are seldom given without consideration, even by sincere Christians, and, for consideration, not seldom to very unworthy persons.Page 316
When we have, to an inconvenient degree, parted with our gold and silver, our industry is stimulated afresh to procure more; that, by its means, we may contrive to procure the same advantage.Page 346
--And what is there so pitiable in their present condition? Were they not slaves in their own countries? Are not Spain, Portugal, France, and the Italian states, governed by despots, who hold all their subjects in slavery, without exception? Even England treats her sailors as slaves, for they are, whenever the government pleases, seized and confined in ships of war, condemned not only to work, but to fight for small wages, or a mere subsistence, not better than our slaves are allowed by us.Page 378
former flourishing state of, from the issue of paper-money, iii.Page 385