Memoirs of Benjamin Franklin; Written by Himself. [Vol. 2 of 2] With his Most Interesting Essays, Letters, and Miscellaneous Writings; Familiar, Moral, Political, Economical, and Philosophical, Selected with Care from All His Published Productions, and Comprising Whatever Is Most Entertaining and Valuable to the General Reader

By Benjamin Franklin

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... ...

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... 42

On Luxury, Idleness, and...

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...86

On the Criminal Laws and the Practice of Privateering ...

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... ...

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... ...

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...139

To Mr. Lith ...

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... 159

To Samuel Huntingdon, President of Congress ...

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... ...

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... 185

To Mr. Jordain ...

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... ...

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... 212

To David Rittenhouse.--New and Curious Theory of Light
...

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...by
Distillation.--Method of relieving Thirst by Seawater ...

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...POLITICAL.

* *...

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...sleeping fox catches no poultry_,
and that _There will be sleeping enough in the grave_, as...

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...true there is much to be
done, and perhaps you are weak-handed; but stick to it...

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...all for the want of a
little care about a horseshoe nail._

"III. So much for industry,...

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...half starved their families. _Silks and satins,
scarlet and velvets, put out the kitchen fire_, as...

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...it hastens misfortune.

"But what madness must it be to _run in debt_ for these superfluities?
We...

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...may;
No morning sun lasts a whole day._

Gain may be temporary and...

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... * * ...

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...composure and acquiescence of mind. Nothing but
an indifference to the things of this world, an...

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...capable of it. The whole is taken from _Xenophon's Memorable
Things of Socrates, Book Third_.

"A certain...

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...the expenses of the republic, for no doubt you
intend to retrench the superfluous?'

"'I never thought...

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...at the mines of silver, to examine why they bring not in so much
now as...

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...a man of
true merit; and if you enter upon the government of the republic with...

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...he
met with company of his own humour. Five or six of the rest he sauntered
away...

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...end of its creation better than I. It was made to
support human nature, and it...

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... And leave behind an empty dish.
Though crows and ravens...

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...inclination,
wrong his neighbours, and eat, and drink, &c., to excess.

But perhaps it may be said,...

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...of the saints in heaven; and
he who does a foolish, indecent, or wicked thing, merely...

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...earth to
another, the nearest and safest way, and in the shortest time.

By help of this...

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...less so.

The usefulness of some particular parts of the mathematics, in the
common affairs of human...

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...dreams, it is, as the French
say, _autant de gagne_, so much added to the pleasure...

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...per minute, and therefore requires a
longer time to spoil a bedchamber-full; but it is done,...

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...portion of cool air that approaches the
warm skin, in receiving its portion of that vapour,...

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...kind. I
am often as agreeably entertained with them as by the scenery of an
opera. If...

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... * *

ADVICE TO A...

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...a creditor, makes him easy six months longer; but if he sees you at a
billiard-table,...

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...quantity.

And so do those of contrary complexions; for that which is too much for
a phlegmatic...

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...contention but the
perfections and imperfections of foreign music. I turned my head from
them to an...

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...my eager pursuits, no solid pleasures now remain but
the reflection of a long life spent...

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...the whistle_; and I
saved my money.

As I grew up, came into the world, and observed...

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... ...

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..."it
proved a dear cap to our congregation." "How so?" "When my daughter
appeared with it at...

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...of forest-land we have yet to clear and put in order
for cultivation, will for a...

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...bulk of commerce, for
which we fight and destroy each other, but the toil of millions...

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...[3] Truth is brighter than light.

A friend of mine was the other day cheapening some...

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...The priest thus honoured was an
Egyptian, and an enemy to Rome, but his virtue removed...

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...the inconvenience of falsity. A man given to
romance must be always on his guard, for...

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...pay for what they buy upon credit, pay their share of this
advance.

He that pays ready...

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... *

THE HANDSOME AND DEFORMED LEG.

There are two sorts of people in the world,...

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...incur public censure or disgrace, no one will
defend or excuse, and many join to aggravate...

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...that never outlive the day in which they are born.

To pursue the thought of this...

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...of hail, and even a dark cloud damps the very stoutest heart.

"I have lived in...

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...as the views of this vainglorious insect
were confined within the narrow circle of his own...

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...must finish their course. The longest
duration of finite happiness avails nothing when it is past:...

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...load of our public debt, and the heavy expense of
maintaining our fleets and armies to...

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...per head, is
so much actually picked out of the pockets of those other people by...

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...those who, by these practices, take a great deal in a year out
of the public...

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...in all the learning of the white people. It is one of the
Indian rules of...

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...profound
silence. When he has finished and sits down, they leave him five or six
minutes to...

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...other, it is a spirit that perhaps has smelt our broiling
venison, and wishes to eat...

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...conversation
begins, with inquiries who they are, whither bound, what news, &c, and
it usually ends with...

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...that he excelled in that
manly accomplishment was high treason. This emperor raised his horse,
the name...

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... [4] Oh virtue! the most certain ruin.

These were some of the...

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...gospel he pleased_.
Accordingly, he filled those places with such as prostituted their
professions to his notions...

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...hot irons, and to suffer perpetual imprisonment! Thus
these three gentlemen, each of worth and quality...

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...the
nation. Other writers, of a different stamp, with great learning and
gravity, endeavoured to prove to...

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...knowledge of
them by some overt act. That the matter of the libel composed by Sidney
was...

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...of _liberty_; who, from an intrinsic love to mankind, left them
that invaluable legacy, his immortal...

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...in money: that, to be
sure, is scarce enough.

But the wisdom of government forbade the exportation.

Well,...

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...the cheaper, stick
to that principle, and go thorough stitch with it. Prohibit the
exportation of your...

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...I am for doing good to the poor, but I differ in opinion about
the means....

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...deserve a little indulgence.
I am yours, &c.

...

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...observe in the yard a wheelbarrow with a quantity of lime in it,
or should see...

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...dreadful summoners grace!"

This ceremony completed and the house thoroughly evacuated, the next
operation is to smear...

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...and
the frame shine, it is sufficient; the rest is not worthy of
consideration. An able arithmetician...

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...for his books and
papers, the key of which he is allowed to keep. This is...

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...the police, but, on a farther inquiry, find it is a
religious rite preparatory to the...

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... ...

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...our tenderest and most compassionate
feelings, and, at the same time, raise our highest indignation against
the...

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...penal
statutes which they are called upon to put in execution. It at once
illustrates," says he,...

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...and probably its true and real motive and
encouragement. Justice is as strictly due between neighbour...

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...prize goods, under pain of
losing the freedom of the burgh for ever, with other punishment...

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...thieves they have taught by their
own example.

It is high time, for the sake of humanity,...

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...them for the use of such armed force,
the same shall...

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...angry, forbid me the house, and told his daughter that if she
married me he would...

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...the pot, and _my dear
thought really it had been but eleven_. At other times, when...

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...herself to this new
manner of living, we shall be the happiest couple, perhaps, in the
province,...

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...both
the first good opportunity, for we do not like negro servants. We got
again about half...

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... ...

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...fancies of your own, I think, without foundation. I am so far
from thinking that God...

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...have been of more
service to you. But if it had, the only thanks I should...

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...* * *...

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... ...

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... ...

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... ...

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...not
as happy as the married state can make him. The family is a respectable
one, but...

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...manufacture, or attempt to deceive by
appearances. Then he may boldly put his name and mark,...

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...character as an _honest_ and faithful
as well as _skilful_ workman, and then he need not...

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...afford a good deal of philosophic and practical
knowledge, unembarassed with the dry mathematics used by...

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... "Portsmouth, August 17, 1761.

"MY DEAR LORD,

"I am now...

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...I shall endeavour to cultivate it by a
more punctual correspondence; and I hope frequently to...

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...entirely we
agree, except in a point of fact, of which you could not but be
misinformed;...

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...that empty
houses, barns, &c., should be hired for them; and that the respective
provinces where they...

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...call for vengeance. The present ministry are
perplexed, and the measures they will finally take on...

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...they have
nevertheless always submitted to it. Custom-houses are established in
all of them, by virtue of...

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...I remember I then
entertained the same opinion of her that you express. On the strength...

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...of subsistence for man. Thus we find, when they took
any horses from their enemies, they...

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...been some similarity in our fortunes and the
circumstances of our lives. This is a fresh...

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... ...

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...of celibacy for life--the fate of many here who never intended it,
but who, having too...

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...the friends of
America were run upon and hurt by them, and how much the Grenvillians
triumphed....

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...and like ourselves. Yours, &c.,

...

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...to his
guide, and said, you blundering blockhead, you are ignorant of your
business; you undertook to...

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...and _con_, are not
present to the mind at the same time; but sometimes one set...

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... "London, July, 4, 1773.

"REVEREND SIR,

"The remarks you have added on the late proceedings against...

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...FRANKLIN."

* *...

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...honest whigs at * *. Adieu.

[18] Dr. Franklin, Colonel Harrison,...

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...fixed in _revolution_ principles,
and act accordingly.

"In my way to Canada last spring, I saw dear...

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...like me, to be
pleased with other people's pleasures, and happy with their happiness
when none occur...

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...humble
servant,

...

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...as the
dangers of the sea subsist always, and at present there is the
additional danger of...

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... * * ...

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...France, but
all Europe, yourselves included, most certainly and for ever, would
despise us if we were...

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...and your children with the rattle
of your right to govern us, as long as you...

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...ministers and measures,
and to draw from me propositions of peace, or approbations of those you
have...

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...your ministers desire it, is to propose openly to
the Congress fair and equal terms; and...

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... "B....

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... "B. FRANKLIN."

* ...

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...might form
a better judgment than any other person can form for him. But, since my
opinion...

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... ...

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...which long fair weather and sunshine had
enfeebled and discoloured, and which in that weak state,...

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...not appear to
me intended for a grammar to teach the language. It is rather what...

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...a cloudy day or
the darkest night. If any Phoenicians arrived in America, I should
rather think...

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...people of France, who happened to respect me too much and him too
little; which I...

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...concerned in the pieces of personal abuse,
so scandalously common in our newspapers, that I am...

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...Congress. I have passed my
seventy-fifth year, and I find that the long and severe fit...

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... * * ...

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...in the evening of a long
life of business; but it was refused me, and I...

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...had, of doing everything
that ladies desire me to do: there is no refusing anything to...

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...persons under conquest,
and to be content with acquired dominion. Why should not the law of
nations...

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...England again
before my return to America. The last year carried off my friends Dr.
Pringle and...

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...other much and often. It is to all our honours, that in all that
time we...

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...most mischievous kind of gaming, mixed blood; and if a
stop is not now put to...

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...as to conceit that every offence
against our imagined honour merits _death_? These petty princes, in
their...

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...in doing good which in the last war have been spent in
doing mischief; in bringing...

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...to me to be
the creature of public convention. Hence the public has the right of
regulating...

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... ...

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...it when I see pride
mortified, and misfortunes brought upon people by their carrying their
heads too...

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...with you. I have a bed
at your service, and will try to make your residence,...

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...his master
that he would break his leg. You believed rather the tales you heard of
our...

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...acquainted with all the springs and levers of our
machine not to see that our human...

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... * * ...

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...wherein, after wishing for a warm
house in a country town, an easy horse, some good...

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...the daily waste of millions of
minds ready made that now exist, and put himself to...

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...Asaph._

...

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...who is
now at college in the next street, finishing the learned part of his
education; the...

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...me from my
birth to the present hour. Wherever I am, I always hope to retain...

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...the Channel. Of the Vinys, and
their jaunt to Cambridge in the long carriages. Of Dolly's...

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...complete
till we have discharged our public debt. This state is not behindhand in
its proportion, and...

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... * * ...

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...Wright to make him a waxwork wife to sit at the head of his
table. For,...

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...We are spirits.
That bodies should be lent us while they can afford us pleasure, to
assist...

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...more
paper money, which they think the bank influence prevents. But it has
stood all attacks, and...

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...fast upon my heels; but, though
you have more strength and spirit, you cannot come up...

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...contained in your
letter of January 31, 1783, have not a little contributed. I am now...

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... "B. FRANKLIN."

* ...

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...grandson, W. T. Franklin, to New-York,
to obtain a final settlement of those accounts, he having...

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... * *

"_Mrs. Green._

...

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...should make no objection, only wishing
for leave to do, what authors do in a second...

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... * * ...

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... "Philadelphia.
...

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...the happy state they are
about to enter.

"According to the course of years, I should have...

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...a virtuous life without the assistance
afforded by religion; you having a clear perception of the...

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...government, pretending that it is the
_western_, and not the _eastern_ river of the Bay of...

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...Philosophical Society,
November 22, 1782.

...

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...incumbent earth and the fluid on which it rests.

If one might indulge imagination in supposing...

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...end of the iron, made denser there and rarer at the
other. While the iron continues...

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...present circumstances, that
mode of studying the nature of the globe is out of my power,...

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...too deep and too difficult
to be come at; but the shell of the earth being...

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...starting game for philosophers, let me try if I can start a little
for you.

Has the...

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...our substances? Do we know the limit of
condensation air is capable of? Supposing it to...

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...very deep in many
places, and covered it with many different strata, we are indebted to
subsequent...

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...of the adjacent parts, produces a noise, and
frequently an inundation of water.

2. The subterraneous waters...

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...noise.

Thunder, which is the effect of the trembling of the air, caused by the
same vapours...

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...obstruction in the
pores or passages through which it used to ascend to the surface,
becomes, by...

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...the shock; it naturally
steering its course that way where it finds the readiest reception,
which is...

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...to either of them; the
reader must not be surprised when we tell him it is...

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...cold bodies in cold ground; there
only wants a sufficient quantity of this mixture to produce...

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...and at the distance
of a few miles, observed a black cloud, like night, hovering over...

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...rumbling noise like that of thunder. In
less than a minute three quarters of the houses,...

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...noises,
like a ruffling wind, or a hollow, rumbling thunder, with brimstone
blasts, that they durst not...

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...of it; but does not extend to the making or
creating new matter, or annihilating the...

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...can drive into it?

Is it not thus that the surface of this globe is continually...

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...extreme subtile fluid,
penetrating other bodies, and subsisting in them, equally diffused.

When, by any operation of...

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...a conductor, the fluid quits them and
strikes into the earth. A cloud fully charged with...

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...&c., with staples of iron.
The lightning will not leave the rod (a good conductor) through...

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...the room and the bedding, when it can go through a
continued better conductor, the wall....

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...appears to be
coming on, and the person who holds the string must stand within a...

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...of a vessel of water,
will dissolve therein, and its parts move every way, till equally
diffused...

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...by adhering to air. * * *

A particle of air loaded with adhering water or...

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...by any means
unequally supported or unequal in its weight, the heaviest part descends
first, and the...

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...by the air of the
lower regions flowing thitherward.

Hence our general cold winds are about northwest,...

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...its big end on the ground.

When the air descends with a violence in some places,...

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...time to time, till I
am almost ashamed to resume the subject, not knowing but you...

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..._my hypothesis_, since I find Stuart
had the same thought, though somewhat obscurely expressed, where he...

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...that which appears a water-spout at sea does sometimes, in its
progressive motion, meet with and...

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...though most commonly, in the
daytime. The terrible whirlwind which damaged a great part of Rome,...

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...part of
a summer's day, or, it may be, for several days successively, till it is
violently...

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...towards it from all
sides without, and by its centrifugal force from within, moving round
with prodigious...

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...and by the swelling and rising
of the water in the beginning vacuum, which is at...

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...off,
and fall in a shower round the spout; but much of it will be broken...

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...in the space between the two circular
lines, both the part between the arrows _a_ and...

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...instantly
a separation made; the particles of water adhere to the air, and the
particles of salt...

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...is, I own, in ingenious, and perhaps that hypothesis
may be true. I will consider it...

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...an account of the effects
of the same storm in those parts, I found the beginning...

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...by the next more northern air, &c., in a successive
current, to which current our coast...

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...the same degree of heat or cold.
The mercury sinks presently three or four degrees, and...

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...a China or stone teapot, being in some degree
of the nature of glass, which is...

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...to the flesh, the parts are separated too far, and
pain ensues, as when they are...

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...of the
fluids in an animal quickens the separation, and reproduces more of the
fire, as exercise;...

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...colder to the touch, and lowers the mercury in
the thermometer more than either ingredient would...

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... * * ...

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...into any of them, the
fluid parts of the water must evaporate from that heat, and...

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..._discharging_ pores;
witness the effects of a blistering-plaster, &c. I have read that a man,
hired by...

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... September 20, 1761.

MY DEAR...

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...actually do in such cases, that the river loses itself by running
under ground, whereas, in...

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...that narrow-mouthed
bay, and filled it with fresh? The Susquehanna alone would seem to be
sufficient for...

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...a hot
sunny climate or season as white ones; because in such clothes the body
is more...

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...the
purpose; a pinhole will do the business. And if you could look behind
the frame to...

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...wood, and, after some time, came out again a fly of the
parent kind, and so...

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...and applied as manure; and now, it seems, that the same
putrid substances, mixed with the...

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...not pass so regularly and constantly backward and forward in the
same track, I began to...

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...or boat of burden, six inches long,
two inches and a quarter wide, and one inch...

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... 100 ...

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...it would require five to draw the same boat in the same time as
far in...

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...water is clear. It must lie in water so deep as that you cannot
reach it...

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...that the whole of the body, taken together, is
too light to sink wholly under water,...

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...the water, he would find them very heavy indeed.

But, as I said before, I would...

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...and, consequently, it should seem that the consuming of the
coals would rather be checked than...

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...circumstantial not to deserve a certain
degree of credit. As we are accustomed to see all...

Page 243

...were possible, from this instance, to invent a method of
embalming drowned persons, in such a...

Page 244

...no covering to shelter his head from the dews of night,
rent in twain the proud...

Page 245

...proverbs and feign parables for the guidance of apprenticed youths
and servile maidens; and the hands...

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...the Great), who
only affected the philosophy that Franklin possessed, and employed his
talents for civil and...