Memoirs of Benjamin Franklin; Written by Himself. [Vol. 2 of 2] With his Most Interesting Essays, Letters, and Miscellaneous Writings; Familiar, Moral, Political, Economical, and Philosophical, Selected with Care from All His Published Productions, and Comprising Whatever Is Most Entertaining and Valuable to the General Reader

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 204

by the air of the
lower regions flowing thitherward.

Hence our general cold winds are about northwest, our summer cold gusts
the same.

The air in sultry weather, though not cloudy, has a kind of haziness in
it, which makes objects at a distance appear dull and indistinct. This
haziness is occasioned by the great quantity of moisture equally
diffused in that air. When, by the cold wind blowing down among it, it
is condensed into clouds, and falls in rain, the air becomes purer and
clearer. Hence, after gusts, distant objects appear distinct, their
figures sharply terminated.

Extreme cold winds congeal the surface of the earth by carrying off its
fire. Warm winds afterward blowing over that frozen surface will be
chilled by it. Could that frozen surface be turned under, and warmer
turned up from beneath it, those warm winds would not be chilled so

The surface of the earth is also sometimes much heated by the sun: and
such heated surface, not being changed, heats the air that moves over

Seas, lakes, and great bodies of water, agitated by the winds,
continually change surfaces; the cold surface in winter is turned under
by the rolling of the waves, and a warmer turned up; in summer the warm
is turned under, and colder turned up. Hence the more equal temper of
seawater, and the air over it. Hence, in winter, winds from the sea seem
warm, winds from the land cold. In summer the contrary.

Therefore the lakes northwest of us,[38] as they are not so much frozen,
nor so apt to freeze as the earth, rather moderate than increase the
coldness of our winter winds.

[38] In Pennsylvania.

The air over the sea being warmer, and, therefore, lighter in winter
than the air over the frozen land, may be another cause of our general
northwest winds, which blow off to sea at right angles from our North
American coast. The warm, light sea-air rising, the heavy, cold land-air
pressing into its place.

Heavy fluids, descending, frequently form eddies or whirlpools, as is
seen in a funnel, where the water acquires a circular motion, receding
every way from a centre, and leaving a vacancy in the middle, greatest
above, and lessening downward, like a speaking-trumpet, its big end

Air, descending or ascending, may form the same kind of eddies or
whirlings, the parts of air acquiring a circular motion, and receding
from the middle of the circle by a centrifugal force, and leaving there
a vacancy; if descending, greatest above and lessening downward; if
ascending, greatest below and lessening upward; like a speaking-trumpet

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Text Comparison with Memoirs of Benjamin Franklin; Written by Himself. [Vol. 1 of 2] With His Most Interesting Essays, Letters, and Miscellaneous Writings; Familiar, Moral, Political, Economical, and Philosophical, Selected with Care from All His Published Productions, and Comprising Whatever Is Most Entertaining and Valuable to the General Reader

Page 12
But the sum he exacted as a fee for my apprenticeship displeased my father, and I was taken home again.
Page 20
In our way, a drunken Dutchman, who was a passenger too, fell overboard; when he was sinking, I reached through the water to his shock pate, and drew him up, so that we got him in again.
Page 32
The violation of my trust respecting Vernon's money was one of the first great errata of my life; and this showed that my father was not much out in his judgment when he considered me as too young to manage business.
Page 33
So convenient a thing it is to be a _reasonable creature_, since _it enables one to find or make a reason for everything one has a mind to do_.
Page 64
The first that I can give account of is my great grandfather, as it was a custom in those days among young men too many times to goe to seek their fortune, and in his travels he went upon liking to a taylor; but he kept such a stingy house, that he left him and travelled farther, and came to a smith's house, and coming on a fasting day, being in popish times, he did not like there the first day; the next morning the servant was called up at five in the morning, but after a little time came a good toast and good beer, and he found good housekeeping there; he served and learned the trade of a smith.
Page 69
School and other education constantly proceed upon false principles, and show a clumsy apparatus pointed at a false mark; but your apparatus is simple, and the mark a true one; and while parents and young persons are left destitute of other just means of estimating and becoming prepared for a reasonable course in life, your discovery, that the thing is in many a man's private power, will be invaluable! "Influence upon the private character, late in life, is not only an influence late in life, but a weak influence.
Page 104
This gave the clergy of the different sects an opportunity of influencing their congregations to join in the association, and it would probably have been general among all but the Quakers if the peace had not soon intervened.
Page 121
And for each able horse without a saddle, eighteen pence per .
Page 125
The fliers, not being pursued, arrived at Dunbar's camp, and the panic they brought with them instantly seized him and all his people.
Page 126
, to be destroyed, that he might have more horses to assist his flight towards the settlements, and less lumber to remove.
Page 127
As soon as the loss of the wagons and horses was generally known, all the owners came upon me for the valuation which I had given bond to pay.
Page 142
" This observation of the messenger was, it seems, well founded; for, when in England, I understood that Mr.
Page 144
" I mentioned, but without effect, a great and unexpected expense I had been put to by being detained so long at New-York, as a reason for my desiring to be presently paid; and on my observing that it was not right I should be put to any farther trouble or delay in obtaining the money I had advanced, as I charged no commission for my service, "Oh," said he, "you must not think of persuading us that you are no gainer: we understand better those matters, and know that every one concerned in supplying the army, finds means, in the doing it, to fill his own pockets.
Page 158
The surface of the oil remains smooth and undisturbed, while the water is agitated with the utmost commotion.
Page 174
Every circumstance of it turned to some valuable account.
Page 190
_ But do they not consider the regulations of the postoffice, by the act of last year, as a tax? _A.
Page 201
_ THESE Indians were the remains of a tribe of the Six Nations, settled at Conestogo, and thence called Conestogo Indians.
Page 202
The universal concern of the neighbouring white people on hearing of this event, and the lamentations of the younger Indians when they returned and saw the desolation, and the butchered, half-burned bodies of their murdered parents and other relations, cannot well be expressed.
Page 203
The blood of the innocent will cry to Heaven for vengeance.
Page 208
You are, indeed, guilty of my son's blood; but God is just and good, and I thank him that I am innocent of yours, and that my faith given is preserved.