Memoirs of Benjamin Franklin; Written by Himself. [Vol. 2 of 2] With his Most Interesting Essays, Letters, and Miscellaneous Writings; Familiar, Moral, Political, Economical, and Philosophical, Selected with Care from All His Published Productions, and Comprising Whatever Is Most Entertaining and Valuable to the General Reader

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 223

colder to the touch, and lowers the mercury in
the thermometer more than either ingredient would do separately. I
suppose, with others, that cold is nothing more than the absence of heat
or fire. Now if the quantity of fire before contained or diffused in the
snow and salt was expelled in the uniting of the two matters, it must be
driven away either through the air or the vessel containing them. If it
is driven off through the air, it must warm the air, and a thermometer
held over the mixture, without touching it, would discover the heat by
the raising of the mercury, as it must and always does in warm air.

This, indeed, I have not tried, but I should guess it would rather be
driven off through the vessel, especially if the vessel be metal, as
being a better conductor than air; and so one should find the basin
warmer after such mixture. But, on the contrary, the vessel grows cold,
and even water, in which the vessel is sometimes placed for the
experiment, freezes into hard ice on the basin. Now I know not how to
account for this, otherwise than by supposing that the composition is a
better conductor of fire than the ingredients separately, and, like the
lock compared with the wood, has a stronger power of attracting fire,
and does accordingly attract it suddenly from the fingers, or a
thermometer put into it, from the basin that contains it, and from the
water in contact with the outside of the basin; so that the fingers have
the sensation of extreme cold by being deprived of much of their natural
fire; the thermometer sinks by having part of its fire drawn out of the
mercury; the basin grows colder to the touch, as, by having its fire
drawn into the mixture, it is become more capable of drawing and
receiving it from the hand; and, through the basin, the water loses its
fire that kept it fluid; so it becomes ice. One would expect that, from
all this attracted acquisition of fire to the composition, it should
become warmer; and, in fact, the snow and salt dissolve at the same time
into water, without freezing.



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Text Comparison with The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 3 [of 3]

Page 2
governors of that province, and their several assemblies.
Page 91
The murder of husbands, of wives, of brothers, sisters and children, whose pleasing society has been for some time enjoyed, affects deeply the respective surviving relations; but grief for the death of a child just born is short, and easily supported.
Page 150
In the mean time, why do you "believe it will preclude all _accommodation_ with them on just and reasonable terms?" Do you not boast, that their gracious condescensions are in the hands of the governor; and that "if this had been the usual time for business, his honour would have sent them down in a message to the house.
Page 181
Page 189
They have not only granted equal to their abilities, but, during all the last war, they granted far beyond their abilities, and beyond their proportion with this country (you yourselves being judges) to the amount of many hundred thousand pounds; and this they did freely and readily, only on a sort of promise, from the secretary of state, that it should be recommended to parliament to make them compensation.
Page 209
Page 236
Let those, who in time of war fought gallantly in defence of the commerce of their countrymen, in peace be taught to prey upon it.
Page 257
Page 259
Thus she will have fewer people to assist in paying her debts, and that diminished number will be poorer.
Page 272
These are all wild imaginations; and those who go to America with expectations founded upon them will surely find themselves disappointed.
Page 280
This constitution, though the Deity himself was to be at its head (and it is therefore called by political.
Page 282
Moses denied the charge of peculation, and his accusers were destitute of proofs to support it; though _facts_, if real, are in their nature capable of proof.
Page 317
_ _New Mode of Lending Money[178].
Page 325
With great and sincere esteem, I have the honour to be, Reverend Sir, Your most obedient and most humble servant, B.
Page 360
The council have since twice remonstrated to them in vain.
Page 361
use it, that they might easily, by their endeavours and example, raise a military spirit among us, make us fond, studious of, and expert in, martial discipline, and affect every thing that is necessary, under God, for our protection.
Page 376
36, p.
Page 377
365, 552, and 555[206], will prove this.
Page 381
Page 384
_Body_, human, specifically lighter than water, ii.