The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 1 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

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...TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

This is Volume 1 of a 3-volume set. The other two volumes...

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...or of foreign philosophical societies, or in our own or foreign
newspapers and magazines, as far...

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...terms asked for the copyright of the
English edition were high, amounting to several thousand pounds,
which...

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...Dr. FRANKLIN 1

LETTERS AND PAPERS ON ELECTRICITY.

Introductory Letter. ...

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...state. ...

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...cause of the different attractions and repulsions of the
two electrified globes mentioned in...

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... electrician and traveller.--Conjectures respecting the pores of
glass.--Origin of the author's idea of...

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...of the atmosphere at different
heights.--Electrical horse-race.--Electrical thermometer.--In
what cases the electrical fire...

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... ...

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... 420

A more particular account of the same, &c. ...

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...to the blush.
_ib._ 4 from the...

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...3 from the bottom: for into, read into which.
235 ...

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...its circumstances, and,
to render their remembrance more durable, commit them to writing. By
thus employing myself,...

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...of
individuals.[1]

This petty estate would not have sufficed for their subsistence, had
they not added the trade...

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...best of my belief, was brought up to the trade of a
wool-dyer.

Benjamin served his apprenticeship...

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...preserved its attachment to the Church of England
till towards the close of the reign of...

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... I therefore put my name,
Your friend, who means you...

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...venturing myself
both upon and within it, and I soon acquired the art of swimming, and
of...

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...kept him unremittingly
employed in the duties of his profession. But I well remember,
that the leading...

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...seven grand children. Let this example, reader,
encourage thee diligently to discharge the duties...

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...with my cousin Samuel, son of my
uncle Benjamin, who had learned this trade in London,...

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...when the book had been lent me in the
evening, and was to be returned the...

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...whether they were competent to the study. Collins
supported the negative, and affirmed that the task...

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...them into verse; and after a time, when I had sufficiently
forgotten them, I again converted...

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...which are the fruit of temperance in eating
and drinking.

It was about this period, that having...

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...the chief ends of conversation are, to inform or
be informed, to please or to persuade,...

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...being, in their opinion, sufficient
for all America. At present, however, in 1771, there are no...

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...very ill part. This severe and tyrannical treatment
contributed, I believe, to imprint on my mind...

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...avail myself
of this circumstance, and I reckon this action as one of the first
errors of...

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...first printer in Pennsylvania, but had quitted that
province on account of a quarrel with George...

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...we called out to them, and
made signs to prevail on them to come and take...

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...literature,
but he was a sad infidel; and, some years after, wickedly undertook
to travesty the Bible,...

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...be
able to compare beginnings so little auspicious, with the figure I
have since made.

On my arrival...

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...was waiting to
continue her journey. Thus refreshed, I regained the street, which
was now full of...

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...When we were
at his house: "Neighbour," said he, "I bring you a young man in...

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...necessary in their profession. Bradford had not
been brought up to it, and was very illiterate....

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...he said, a young man of very promising talents, and
that, of consequence, I ought to...

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...for
Boston. I took leave of Keimer, upon the pretext of going to see my
parents. The...

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...it proved very little
discernment to think of setting up a boy in business, who for...

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...gave me an order for that
purpose. This affair occasioned me, in the sequel, much uneasiness.

At...

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...But, during my absence, he had unfortunately
addicted himself to brandy, and I learned, as well...

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...he would make me row, or would throw me out of the boat; and he
made...

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...to trust him; for I afterwards learned
he was universally known to be liberal of promises,...

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...only occasionally to
my vegetable plan. How convenient does it prove to be a _rational
animal_, that...

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...commonly given, of introducing
gradually such alterations of regimen.

I continued it cheerfully, but poor Keimer suffered...

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...to the trade in which he had been brought up. In the road of
commerce, said...

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...he was
no more able to criticise than he was able to write.

When Osborne was alone...

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...he was married and had a child, determined to accompany
me in this voyage. His object...

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...well off as to provisions, as we had the advantage of the
whole of Mr. Hamilton's,...

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...opinion
that he ought to be made acquainted with it; and in reality, the
instant he arrived...

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...child, as I also, by degrees, forgot my engagements
with Miss Read, to whom I never...

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...curious, he prevailed on me to add this piece to his collection;
for which he paid...

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...the obligations he owed me as annihilated by this
proceeding; whence I concluded that I was...

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...continue all their lives
in a state of voluntary wretchedness and poverty.

At the end of a...

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...Duke-street, opposite the Roman Catholic chapel.
It was at the back of an Italian warehouse. The...

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...part to the poor, living on water gruel, and
never making use of fire but to...

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...perfecting himself in this art,
was the more attached to me from there being, in other...

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...or in expediting the workmen, &c. &c. When every
thing, however, was on board, I had...

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...thing.

I should have been equally ashamed myself at meeting Miss Read, had
not her family, justly...

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...of him; and I was loth, for the present, to
have any concern with him. I...

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...as well as in verse, had been inserted in the Gloucester
papers. From hence he was...

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...But
useful as I made myself, I perceived that my services became every
day of less importance,...

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...from a conversation that had passed between
them, he was sure he would advance whatever might...

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...to
superintend the press, and to see that no more bills were printed
than the law had...

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...against deism fell into my hands.
They were said to be the substance of sermons preached...

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..._voluntary_, injustice, to which my want of religion was
calculated to expose me, in the dangerous...

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...all of them,
been obliged to call together their creditors. That he knew, from
undoubted fact, the...

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...said, continually contradicting, or making
trifling distinctions; a sure way of defeating all the ends of
conversation....

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...for the little things which our friends occasionally
sent us, kept us back in this work:...

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...he intended to
institute himself, and in which Webb was to be engaged.

I was exasperated at...

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...whom I have mentioned in a former part of my narrative,
and who was now returned...

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...only in the business, and is unwilling to do for two,
what he would do for...

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...Junto, in which I was on the side of the new emission;
convinced that the first...

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...also paper, parchment, pasteboard, books, &c. One
Whitemash, an excellent compositor, whom I had known in...

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...to extend his trade. He had, however, one advantage over me,
as he had the direction...

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...or
if it was merely an artifice, supposing our affections to be too
far engaged for us...

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...left
many debts, for the payment of which his successor might be sued. We
ventured, nevertheless, in...

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...is extracted from an American periodical publication, and was
written by the late Dr....

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...to
be hoped that they will be still more widely extended, and that
information will be every...

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...the citizens against the midnight robber, and to
give an immediate alarm in case of fire....

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...refused his
assent to them; and the assembly broke up without passing a militia
bill. The situation...

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...se_. In 1742, several ingenious Germans engaged
in this subject, of these the principal were, professor...

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...of the aurora
borealis, upon electrical principles. He points out many particulars
in which lightning and electricity...

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...too generally for the
interest of science, awaits unsuccessful experiments in philosophy.
He placed himself under a...

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...first shewed signs of electricity. On the 10th of May, 1752,
a thunder cloud passed over...

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...basis, is incontestibly due to Franklin. D'Alibard, who
made the first experiments in France, says, that...

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...clouds that
strike into the earth." The letter containing these observations is
dated in September, 1753; and...

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...for
several years, he confined himself not to this. In the year 1747, he
became a member...

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...academy as "a foundation for posterity
to erect a seminary of learning more extensive, and suitable...

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...since called
the Charitable School) was opened; and amidst all the difficulties
with which the trustees have...

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...If the reverse
of this does not already appear from what has been quoted above,
the following...

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...the name of _Ralph_.

[5] A manuscript note in the file of the American Mercury, preserved
in...

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...an opportunity of choosing good masters;
upon which indeed, the success of the whole depends. We...

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...these ten days; but before he went he
directed me to procure him six copies of...

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...P. Collinson,
Esq. at Dr. Franklin's request, (aided by the letters of Mr. Allen
and Mr. Peters,)...

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...within a few months
of his death, when with reluctance, and at their desire, lest he
might...

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...to take upon themselves the whole burden of
erecting forts and maintaining garrisons, whilst their neighbours,
who...

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...was unanimously agreed to by the
commissioners, a copy transmitted to each assembly, and one to...

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...extended very far; even to the back of the British
settlements. They were disposed, from time...

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...colonies, after the defeat of Braddock,
was very great. Preparations to arm were every where made....

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...and the defence of the province
entrusted to regular troops.

The disputes between the proprietaries and the...

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...bore only
a proportionable share of the expences of supporting government.

After the completion of this important...

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...the command given to
General Wolfe. His success is well known. At the treaty in 1762,
France...

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...he has called the
_Armonica_.

In the summer of 1762, he returned to America. On his passage...

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...Another
proclamation was issued, but it had no effect. A detachment marched
down to Philadelphia, for the...

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...fourteen years. On the meeting of the assembly, it appeared
there was still a decided majority...

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...from office persons who had rendered themselves so
obnoxious to the people, and who had shown...

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...life, what but a repetition of unjust
treatment could have induced them to entertain the most...

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...was elected by the legislature of Pennsylvania a delegate
to congress. Not long after his election...

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...plural executive, seem to
have been his favourite tenets.

In the latter end of 1776, Dr. Franklin...

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...political pursuits to engross his
whole attention. Some of his performances made their appearance in
Paris. The...

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...a remarkably good one. He had been little
subject to disease, except an attack of the...

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...with his family, and a few friends who visited him, but
was often employed in doing...

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...FRANKLIN_,

PRINTER.

(LIKE THE COVER OF AN OLD BOOK,

ITS CONTENTS TORN...

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...the encouragement of
scholarship in the said schools, belonging to the said town, in such
manner as...

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...a
democratical state, there ought to be no offices of profit, for the
reasons I had given...

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...my death, if possible, in forming
and advancing other young men, that may be serviceable to...

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...shall be again let out to fresh
borrowers. And it is presumed, that there will be...

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...off most of
the rain, and prevent its soaking into the earth, and renewing and
purifying the...

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...them accepts the
money with the conditions, and the other refuses, my will then is,
that both...

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...which they have
not been translated; and, as if this were not sufficient to make
them properly...

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... _Philadelphia, July 11, 1747._

SIR,

In my last I informed you that, in pursuing...

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...will no
more conduct electricity than sealing-wax.

To shew that points will _throw off_[17] as well as...

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...it, by passing the tube near a person or
thing standing on the floor, &c. had...

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...Or rather, _B_ is electrised _plus_; _A_, _minus_. And
we daily in our experiments electrise bodies...

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...hands with _A_ and _B_, salute or
shake hands. We suspend by fine silk thread a...

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...Mr. Hopkinson's experiment, made with an expectation
of drawing a more sharp and powerful spark from...

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...of the latter is accumulated _on its surface_, and
forms an electrical atmosphere round it of...

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...Place it on a
non-electric, and touch the wire, you will get it out in a...

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...Hurst, Rees
& Orme, Paternoster Row._]


EXPERIMENT II.

FIG. 1. From a bent wire (_a_) sticking in the...

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...Hence a bottle cannot be electrised that is foul
or moist on the outside, if such...

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...as would also any _plus_
electricity, which he might have given him before the shock. For
restoring...

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...stock in the earth.




TO PETER COLLINSON, ESQ. F. R. S. LONDON.

_Farther Experiments confirming...

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...bottle. See § 8,
9, 10, 11. But if a man holds in his hands two...

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...shall charge them all
equally, and every one as much as one alone would have been....

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...through the substance of the glass, but must be done by a
non-electric communication formed without,...

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...be taken from
different places. Then dextrously placing it again between the leaden
plates, and compleating a...

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...is not
the worse. With thin paste, or gum-water, fix the border that is cut
off on...

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...truly
vertical. About thirty _radii_ of equal length, made of sash-glass,
cut in narrow strips, issue horizontally...

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...its axis passes through a hole in a thin brass plate cemented to
a long strong...

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...discharged.

24. Every spark in that manner drawn from the surface of the wheel,
makes a round...

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...was electrified the other
hardly shewed any signs of its being in connection with it[39]. Even
a...

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...England, Holland, France, and Germany are to be drank
in _electrified bumpers_[43], under the discharge of...

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...At the same instant the rod on the other side delivered a spark
into the spoon,...

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...by contact with three
only, whereas _C_ and _D_ are each in contact with nine. When...

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...denser, would sink to
the earth with its water, and not rise to the formation of...

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...in
order to rain on the sea, would not appear reasonable.

27. But clouds, formed by vapours...

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...they lose
their fire; the particles of the other clouds close in receiving
it: in both, they...

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...near with your
knuckle before you can draw a spark. Give it more fire, and it...

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...appears like a
net, and the fire is seen in its leaping over the vacancies.--And as
when...

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...they may and do subsist
together in the same body.

48. When electrical fire strikes through a...

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...land. And
accordingly some old sea-captains, of whom enquiry has been made, do
affirm, that the fact...

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...in Europe, continually engaged in the same researches)
at least it will shew, that the instruments...

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...If more is
added, it lies without upon the surface, and forms what we call an
electrical...

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...this natural proportion of electrical fluid is
taken out of a piece of common matter, the...

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...because it is equally
attracted by every part. But that is not the case with bodies...

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...farther from C, than any other part of the atmosphere
over the lines C, B, or...

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...so a blunt
body presented cannot draw off a number of particles at once, but a
pointed...

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...blunt body, as a bolt of iron round
at the end, and smooth (a silversmith's iron...

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...acres may strike and discharge on the earth at a
proportionably greater distance. The horizontal motion...

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...a wire that has one end fastened to the leads, he holding
it by a wax...

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...of smooth glass that are about the width of
your finger. If one strip of gold,...

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...in them.

25. In one of my former papers, I mentioned, that gilding on a
book, though...

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...the electrified
plate, and draws nearer to the unelectrified plate, till it comes to
a distance where...

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...several times with the same
fish-like motion, greatly to the entertainment of spectators. By a
little practice...

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...the bullet is from its wire. Now let
the globe be turned, and you see a...

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...I shall be
able to make this part intelligible. By the word _surface_, in this
case, I...

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...expansion in the other, it can
imbibe no more, and that remains its constant whole quantity;...

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...axis of the globe, and frame of the machine, the new collected
electrical fluid can enter...

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...the
wire, is not necessary; for _in vacuo_ the electrical fire will fly
freely from the inner...

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...this
instantaneously where the rod is part of the circle in the experiment
of the shock. But...

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...seizing some of the finest particles
of the oil in its passage, and carrying them off...

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...as some have thought, but that the Coating always
receives what is discharged by...

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...if the prime conductor be electrified,
and the cork balls in a state of repellency before...

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...one long wire, reaching from the internal surface of
the phial to the spirits.

_June 29, 1751._...

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...had its point melted off, and some part of its head and neck
run. Sometimes the...

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...the magnetic needle, given a magnetism and polarity to needles
that had none, and fired dry...

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...matter of this terraqueous globe.
If so, the terms _electric per se_, and _non-electric_, should be
laid...

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...times, in the air, with the swiftest motion I could possibly
give it, yet it retained...

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...bottle came to be of the
same temperature of that without, the drop of red ink...

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...Air obstructs, in some degree,
its motion. An electric atmosphere cannot be communicated at so
great a...

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...orbits.

May not all the phenomena of light be more conveniently solved, by
supposing universal space filled...

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...and growing, by degrees, too heavy to be longer supported,
they descend to the Sun, and...

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...one hand a
wire, which was fastened at the other end to the handle of a...

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...like manner on the other
conductor; set both wheels a going again, and the same number...

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...so that turning equally, or turning
that slowest which worked best, would again bring the conductor...

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...as if it
flowed from the finger; on the glass globe it is otherwise. 4. The
cool...

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...of cedar, the arms so long as
to reach to the four corners of a large...

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...lightning, imagining its luminous appearance to be owing to
electric fire, produced by friction between the...

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...warm weather would bring
on more frequent thunder-clouds.

The experiment was this: To take two phials; charge...

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...state. This was thus discovered:

I had another concurring experiment, which I often repeated, to prove
the...

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...farther trials and
observations; yet Mr. Kinnersley returning from the Islands just as I
left home, pursued...

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...by any portion of common
matter, the parts of that fluid, (which have among themselves a
mutual...

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...receive from the earth a flash of the
electric fluid; which flash, to supply a great...

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...a charged phial to the can,
I gave it a spark, which flowed round in an...

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...former papers relating to
_positive_ and _negative_ electricity, with such other relative ones
as shall occur to...

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...best materials and complete conductors, will, I think,
secure the building from damage, either by restoring...

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...be
measured, and, in different strokes, is certainly very various, in
some much greater than others; and...

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...COLLINSON, ESQ. F. R. S. LONDON.

_Additional Proofs of the positive and negative State...

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...clouds, by John Canton, M. A. and F. R. S._


_Dec. 6, 1753._

EXPERIMENT I.

From...

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...contact; and as the tube is brought
still nearer, they will separate again to as great...

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...to be nearly at right
angles with it, and the balls at the end will repel...

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...the room, and the air rendered very
dry by means of a fire: electrify the apparatus...

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...cork balls, electrified
by them, will sometimes close at the approach of excited glass; and
at other...

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...Read at the Royal Society, Dec. 18, 1755.


_Philadelphia, March 14, 1755._

PRINCIPLES.

I. Electric atmospheres,...

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...back on the prime conductor.

_Withdraw it, and they will diverge as much._

For the...

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...therefore repel each other, by _Pr. III._

_Approach the prime conductor with the tube...

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...very strong electrical shock upon a
turkey, that gentleman accordingly has been so very obliging as...

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...down Lightning.--No
satisfactory Hypothesis respecting the Manner in which Clouds
become electrified.--Six Men...

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...project! But he was, as you observe, a very
singular character. I was sorry the tubes...

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...may be felt by a hand plunged in the
water; but it cannot be felt in...

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...but
no alteration was made at all, nor could I perceive that the steam
was itself electrised,...

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...came too near my prime
conductor: she dropped, but instantly got up again, complaining of
nothing. A...

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...That
vanity too, though an incitement to invention, is, at the same time,
the pest of inventors....

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...in New England.--Remarks on the Subject._

Read at the Royal Society, Dec. 18, 1755.


...

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...feet up from the ground to the place where the bell hung,
over which rose a...

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...effects on the lofty spire above the
bell, and on the square tower all below the...

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...at length been induced, imperfect as they are, to permit their
publication, as some of the...

Page 218

...K. tells me always points
to the north.

The electrical fire passing through air has the same...

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...therefore the column aforesaid must be in a denser state
than its neighbouring air.

About the velocity...

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...so
a friction between them, will not collect any fire; nor, I suppose,
would a sphere of...

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...are in the manuscript you sent me. I
understand by your son, that you had writ,...

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...propose, the sparks
would not only be near strait _in vacuo_, but strike at a greater
distance...

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...proceed from
some principle yet unknown to us (which I would gladly make some
experiments to discover,...

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...the 24th of January past, inclosing
an extract from your letter to Mr. Collinson, and ****'s...

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...strips of glass, puts me in mind of a
very similar one of lightning, that I...

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...melted and stuck together, and partly blown up or reduced
to smoke, and dissipated. [See an...

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...brook
to Delaware or Schuylkill, and down one of them to their meeting,
and up the other...

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...wire, the whole quantity of
electric fluid contained in the wire is, probably, put in motion...

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...it, and holding a flaxen thread near him, I perceived he was
electrised sufficiently to attract...

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...is
founded, may be well enough accounted for without it. Will not cork
balls, electrised negatively, separate...

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...several lengths
are united, ought to be tied down with a waxed thread, to prevent
their acting...

Page 232

...brass nut, in the mahogany pedestal E. The wires
F and G are for the electric...

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...rarefies the air very
evidently; which shows, I think, that the electric fire must produce
heat in...

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...motion, and the
resistance it meets with, produce heat in other bodies when passing
through them, provided...

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...he had provided
for the security of his house; I waited on him, to enquire what
ground...

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...several places, by small iron hooks.
The lower end was fixed to a ring, in the...

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...Attraction and Repulsion.--Reply to
other Subjects in the preceding Paper.--Numerous Ways of kindling
...

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...freezing; and, accordingly,
from some water mixed with the spirit, or from the breath of the
assistants,...

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...might have been expected from a bottle of that size well
charged, some doubt remained whether...

Page 240

...will not be through the glass, but on
the surface, round by the edge of it."

By...

Page 241

...of his experiments to the world, as he makes many, and with
great accuracy.

You know I...

Page 242

...only their
natural quantity of that fluid, are not usually seen to attract each
other, or to...

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...law of the electric fluid, "That
quantities of different densities mutually attract each other, in
order to...

Page 244

...arm upwards into the air, with a needle between his
fingers, on the point of which...

Page 245

...the friction of air blowing
strongly on them, as it does on the kite and its...

Page 246

...rays, by collision, by friction, by hammering,
by putrefaction, by fermentation, by mixtures of fluids, by...

Page 247

...operation, the different effects of the same
quantity of electric fluid passing through different quantities of
metal....

Page 248

...reduced to vapour, is said to occupy 14,000 times
its former space. I have sent a...

Page 249

...from an electrised
body, shows this clearly when a point or a knob is presented under...

Page 250

...gun, leaning against the
back-wall, nearly opposite to where the brass wire came down on the
outside....

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...(_c_),
and unhooking the joints without affecting the rod (_d_), except on
the inside of each hook...

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...good
deal of instruction relating to the nature and effects of lightning,
and to the construction and...

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...smoke and dissipated; but where
the conductor is sufficiently large, the fluid passes in it without
hurting...

Page 254

...foundation, which being near the earth are generally
moist, and, in exploding that moisture, shattered them....

Page 255

...near the hearth, from the
causes above-mentioned, it was not in any other part of the...

Page 256

...the
faces of the stone where they could obtain the greatest breadth,
or some other advantage in...

Page 257

...the end of a small glass tube, with sealing-wax, the same
effects are produced. The flat...

Page 258

...rung
while it was snowing, yet, the next day, after it had done snowing,
and the weather...

Page 259

...comes
to water. Iron is a cheap metal; but if it were dearer, as this is
a...

Page 260

...if the barrel
were kept under water. This tin-foil is but about eighteen pence
sterling a pound,...

Page 261

...metal, the other not so good, it
passes in the best, and will follow it in...

Page 262

...the roof or other parts of
the building, will receive the lightning at its upper end,...

Page 263

...downwards three or four feet, it will
prevent damage to any of the stones of the...

Page 264

...from such
practice, though constant experience shows its inutility. A late
piece of the Abbé Nollet, printed...

Page 265

...stroke of lightning than our
common dwellings.

I have nothing new in the philosophical way to communicate...

Page 266

...is held in the hand, and
rise in the other as a jet or fountain; when...

Page 267

...de réflexion, nous apprennent
qu'il ne faut pas compter sur les promesses qu'on nous a faites....

Page 268

...A. B. (_See Plate_
IV.) being supported about 10 inches and a half above the table...

Page 269

...quantity
thus discharged, I cannot but conceive that a _number_[88] of such
conductors must considerably lessen that...

Page 270

...jointly operate on the electric fluid in the point,
opposing its descent, and _aiding the point_...

Page 271

...the cotton, by its connection
with the prime conductor, receives from it a quantity of its
electricity;...

Page 272

...within about an inch, and there
_remain_.


OBSERVATION.

This seems a proof, that though the small sharpened part...

Page 273

...that in those _small_ experiments
it is evident the points act at a greater than the...

Page 274

...that will
fall on its point. It is true that if another deluge should happen
wherein the...

Page 275

...was seen above, nor any thunder heard. At another time the
streams of fire issuing from...

Page 276

...was done, and my family was only found a good
deal frightened with the violence of...

Page 277

...too, were found more capable of voluntary motion, and seemed
to receive strength. A man, for...

Page 278

...the other, I rammed the
powder hard between them in the middle of the tube, where...

Page 279

...the earth whatever which is, or can be,
naturally in a state of negative electricity: and...

Page 280

...uniformly diffusing itself,
the balls will again be separated; being now in a negative state.
While things...

Page 281

...convinced me, that my hypothesis on
this subject was erroneous. It is difficult to conceive where...

Page 282

...circle, or is stronger than before.

Repeat this experiment with this difference: let two or three...

Page 283

...been forced from one extremity of the
steel to the other, it is not easy for...

Page 284

...admissible, it will serve as an answer to
the greater part of your questions. I have...

Page 285

...flash of lightning; and
it being rather late in the evening, the proprietor, desirous of
saving something,...

Page 286

...of electricity, by employing a greater or less number of
jars. As six jars, however, discharged...

Page 287

...for instance, to melt a
small wire) if the charge, instead of passing in this circle,...

Page 288

...Pursuance of that proposed by
Mr. Franklin, Pages 227, 228._


SIR,

The Philadelphian experiments,...

Page 289

...des Sciences, le 13 Mai, 1752._


"En suivant la route que M. Franklin nous a tracée,...

Page 290

...soie, parce qu'ils laisseroient passer la matiére
électrique s'ils etoient mouillés, j'ai pris les précautions
necessaires pour...

Page 291

...suivante, qu'il
m'ecrivit à la hâte."


_Je vous annonce, Monsieur, ce que veus attendez: l'expérience est
complette. Aujourd'hui...

Page 292

...a été le premier
qui a fait l'expérience & l'a répétée, plusieurs fois; ce n'est
qu'à l'occasion...

Page 293

...dissipated too soon to be
perceived upon touching those parts of the apparatus, which served
to conduct...

Page 294

...a gentleman, at whose house he then was.

Dr. Bevis observed, at Mr. Cave's, at St....

Page 295

...this surface, I say, appeared rather better electrised
thereby, and more proper to produce all the...

Page 296

...imagination in conceiving this. Suspend a cork ball, or a
feather, by a silk thread, and...

Page 297

...from the bottom before he took hold of the hook.
These persons placed themselves one on...

Page 298

...this third phial receives the fire at D, and will be
charged.

[Illustration: (of the experiment above)]

When...

Page 299

...phial's being charged when held in a
man's hand, only proves that water will conduct the...

Page 300

...how the
threads will rise and fall by touching the coating and conductor of
the phial alternately....

Page 301

...from the
hook of the full phial.

The Abbé says, p. 103, "That a piece of metal...

Page 302

... to a crafty statesman, 430.
to a young tradesman,...

Page 303

...no bad conductor of sound, 337.
fresh, beneficial effects of,...

Page 304

...British parliament, 37.
interest of Great Britain with regard to,...

Page 305

...47.
humorous instance of abstinence from, 49.
...

Page 306

..._Bermudian_ sloops, advantages of their construction, ii. 173.

_Bernoulli_, Mr. his plan for moving...

Page 307

...on Franklin, i. 79.

_Braddock_, general, defeat of, i. 131.

_Bradford_, printer at...

Page 308

...Indians, their advantages, ii. 176.

_Canton_, Mr. John, experiments by, i. 286, 346.
...

Page 309

...gradually deteriorates in, i. 163.
do not supply themselves with...

Page 310

...of heat, 81.
produced by chemical mixtures, _ibid._
...

Page 311

...common in America, i. 113.
first...

Page 312

... _Crooked_ direction of lightning explained, i. 316.

_Cutler_, circumstance that prevented Franklin's being...

Page 313

...before 1768, causes of, iii. 225.

_Dissentions_ between England and America, letter on, iii....

Page 314

... atmosphere, how produced, 221.
...

Page 315

...portable one, described, 178.
matter, its properties, 217, 294.
...

Page 316

...in, 351.

_Enterprises_, public, Franklin's early disposition for, i. 10.

_Ephemera_, an emblem...

Page 317

...on the sailing of boats, 160.

_Exportation_ of gold and silver, observations on, ii....

Page 318

... hollow backed, by Gauger, 232.
Staffordshire, 285.
...

Page 319

...of, the common cause of the state,
...

Page 320

...256.
difference in its qualities, 301.
...

Page 321

..._Habits_, effects of, on population, ii. 393. 394.

_Hadley's_ quadrant, by whom invented, i....

Page 322

...river, winds there, ii. 52, 59.

_Hunters_, require much land to subsist on, ii....

Page 323

...i. 139.
often excited by the French against the English,...

Page 324

...of, in printing, ii. 355.

_Judges_, mode of their appointment in America, in 1768,...

Page 325

...its qualities, 245.
when sealed hermetically, retains long its electricity,...

Page 326

... how to preserve buildings from, 377.
personal danger from,...

Page 327

... want no encouragement from the government, if a country be ripe for
...

Page 328

... _Mickle_, Samuel, a prognosticator of evil, i. 81.

_Military_ manners, effects of, ii....

Page 329

...former flourishing state of, from the issue of paper money,
...

Page 330

..._Oversetting_ at sea, how it occurs, ii. 172.
how to...

Page 331

... i. 102.
...

Page 332

...seminary there, instituted by Franklin, 116 to 127.
state of...

Page 333

... offices of, i. 102, 127.

_Potts_, Stephen, a companion of Franklin's,...

Page 334

...i. 125.
spirit, manifest in England, iii. 91.
...

Page 335

...formed, i. 209.
motion of the tides in, explained, ii....

Page 336

...on the distillation of, ii. 103.
how to quench thirst...

Page 337

... if by too short a funnel, 269.
...

Page 338

... _Squares_, magical square of, ii. 324.

_Staffordshire_ chimney, description of, ii. 285.

...

Page 339

...218.

_Tautology_, an affected beauty of modern songs, ii. 345.

_Taxation_, American, letters...

Page 340

... great rivers in America, favourable to, 118.
...

Page 341

...Albany plan of. See _Albany_.

_Union_ of America with Britain, letter on, iii. 239.

...

Page 342

...distillation only, _ib._
curious effects of oil on, 142.

...

Page 343

... raise the surface of the sea above its level, 188.
...

Page 344

...vi. 'side the' replaced by 'side of the'.
Pg xiv. 'anology' replaced by 'analogy'.
...

Page 345

...The Index had no page numbers in the original text; page numbers from
1i...