The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 1 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 115

a
democratical state, there ought to be no offices of profit, for the
reasons I had given in an article of my drawing in our constitution,
it was my intention, when I accepted the office of president, to
devote the appointed salary to some public use; accordingly I had
already, before I made my last will in July last, given large sums of
it to colleges, schools, building of churches, &c.; and in that will
I bequeathed two thousand pounds more to the state, for the purpose
of making the Schuylkil navigable; but understanding since, that such
a sum will do but little, towards accomplishing such a work, and that
project is not likely to be undertaken for many years to come--and
having entertained another idea, which I hope may be more extensively
useful, I do hereby revoke and annul the bequest, and direct that
the certificates I have of what remains due to me of that salary, be
sold towards raising the sum of two thousand pounds sterling, to be
disposed of as I am now about to order.

It has been an opinion, that he who receives an estate from his
ancestors, is under some obligation to transmit the same to
posterity. This obligation lies not on me, who never inherited a
shilling from any ancestor or relation. I shall, however, if it is
not diminished by some accident before my death, leave a considerable
estate among my descendants and relations. The above observation is
made merely as some apology to my family, for my making bequests that
do not appear to have any immediate relation to their advantage.

I was born in Boston, New England, and owe my first instructions in
literature to the free grammar schools established there. I have,
therefore, considered those schools in my will.

But I am also under obligations to the state of Massachussets, for
having, unasked, appointed me formerly their agent, with a handsome
salary, which continued some years; and although I accidentally lost
in their service, by transmitting governor Hutchinson's letters, much
more than the amount of what they gave me, I do not think that ought
in the least to diminish my gratitude. I have considered that, among
artisans, good apprentices are most likely to make good citizens, and
having myself been bred to a manual art, printing, in my native town,
and afterwards assisted to set up my business in Philadelphia by kind
loans of money from two friends there, which was the foundation of
my fortune, and of all the utility in life that may be ascribed to
me--I wish to be useful even after

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Text Comparison with Experiments and Observations on Electricity Made at Philadelphia in America

Page 0
John's Gate_.
Page 1
[Illustration] LETTER I.
Page 3
Place an electrised phial on wax; a small cork-ball suspended by a dry silk-thread held in your hand, and brought near to the wire, will first be attracted, and then repelled: when in this state of repellency, sink your hand, that the ball may be brought towards the bottom of the bottle; it will there be instantly and strongly attracted, 'till it has parted with its fire.
Page 5
EXPERIMENT XI.
Page 8
--But now I need only mention some particulars not hinted in that piece, with our reasonings thereupon; though perhaps the latter might well enough be spared.
Page 13
But the spring.
Page 15
The plates may also be discharged separately, or any number together that is required.
Page 26
When a great number of clouds from the sea meet a number of clouds raised from the land, the electrical flashes appear to strike in different parts; and as the clouds are jostled and mixed by the winds, or brought near by the electrical attraction, they continue to give and receive flash after flash, till the electrical fire is equally diffused.
Page 27
45.
Page 28
49.
Page 31
This affords another occasion of adoring that wisdom which has made all things by weight and measure! 11.
Page 34
For the man, and what he holds in his hand, be it large or small, are connected with the common mass of unelectrified matter; and the force with which he draws is the same in both cases, it consisting in the different proportion of electricity in the electrified body and that common mass.
Page 38
Place one of these strips between two strips of smooth glass that are about the width of your finger.
Page 40
Cut a piece of _Dutch_ gold (which is fittest for these experiments on account of its greater strength) into the form of FIG.
Page 41
Turn its tail towards the prime conductor, and then it flies to your finger, and seems to nibble it.
Page 43
[Illustration] 33.
Page 45
For experiments favouring (if I may not say confirming) this hypothesis, I must, to avoid repetition, beg leave to refer you back to what is said of the electrical phial in my former papers.
Page 51
We have found it fatal to small animals, but 'tis not strong enough to kill large ones.
Page 52
Under each Branch is given an Account of its Object and Use, an Explanation of the Terms, the History of its Rise and Progress, with Rules for exhibiting it to the best Advantage.
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