The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 1 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 127

of the latter is accumulated _on its surface_, and
forms an electrical atmosphere round it of considerable extent; but
the electrical fire is crowded _into the substance_ of the former,
the glass confining it[25].

2. At the same time that the wire and the top of the bottle, &c.
is electrised _positively_ or _plus_, the bottom of the bottle is
electrised _negatively_ or _minus_, in exact proportion: _i. e._
whatever quantity of electrical fire is thrown in at the top, an
equal quantity goes out of the bottom[26]. To understand this,
suppose the common quantity of electricity in each part of the
bottle, before the operation begins, is equal to 20; and at every
stroke of the tube, suppose a quantity equal to 1 is thrown in; then,
after the first stroke, the quantity contained in the wire and upper
part of the bottle will be 21, in the bottom 19. After the second,
the upper part will have 22, the lower 18, and so on, till, after 20
strokes, the upper part will have a quantity of electrical fire equal
to 40, the lower part none: and then the operation ends: for no more
can be thrown into the upper part, when no more can be driven out of
the lower part. If you attempt to throw more in, it is spewed back
through the wire, or flies out in loud cracks through the sides of
the bottle.

3. The equilibrium cannot be restored in the bottle by _inward_
communication or contact of the parts; but it must be done by a
communication formed _without_ the bottle, between the top and
bottom, by some non-electric, touching or approaching both at the
same time; in which case it is restored with a violence and quickness
inexpressible; or, touching each alternately, in which case the
equilibrium is restored by degrees.

4. As no more electrical fire can be thrown into the top of the
bottle, when all is driven out of the bottom, so in a bottle not
yet electrised, none can be thrown into the top, when none _can_
get out at the bottom; which happens either when the bottom is too
thick, or when the bottle is placed on an electric _per se_. Again,
when the bottle is electrised, but little of the electrical fire can
be _drawn out_ from the top, by touching the wire, unless an equal
quantity can at the same time _get in_ at the bottom[27]. Thus, place
an electrised bottle on clean glass or dry wax, and you will not,
by touching the wire, get out the fire from the top.

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Text Comparison with Benjamin Franklin Representative selections, with introduction, bibliograpy, and notes

Page 38
"The very look of an ordinary first page of the _Courant_ is like that of the _Spectator_ page.
Page 75
"[i-378] In a fictitious (?) conversation between Joseph II of Austria and Franklin, the Newton of electricity is reported as explaining that he was early in life attracted by natural philosophy: "Necessity afterwards made me a politician.
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) Livingston, L.
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Laski.
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I cross'd these columns with thirteen red lines, marking the beginning of each line with the first.
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_If He is all-powerful, there can be nothing either existing or acting in the Universe_ against _or_ without _his Consent, and what He consents to must be good, because He is good, therefore_ Evil _doth not exist.
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you remember, I told you then, that some Misfortunes in my Pleasures had sent me to Philosophy for Relief? But now I do assure you, I can, without a Sigh, leave other Pleasures for those of Philosophy; I can hear the Word _Reason_ mentioned, and Virtue praised, without Laughing.
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1.
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For the _Rattle-Snake_ gives Warning before he attempts his Mischief; which the Convict does not.
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I guess that some of the same kind will one day draw you out of that Island.
Page 592
Will you admit a word or two on the other side of the question? I do not propose to be an advocate for oppression or oppressors.
Page 594
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Page 608
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Page 630
Until this is done our abridgment, it is hoped, will be found to contain what may be most generally proper to be joined in by an assembly of Christian people.
Page 650
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6.
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If there be a Nation, for Instance, that exports its Beef and Linnen, to pay for its Importation of Claret and Porter, while a great Part of its People live upon Potatoes, and wear no Shirts, wherein does it differ from the Sot, who lets his Family starve, and sells his Clothes to.
Page 726
But if, while I feed them, I employ them, some in Spinning, others in hewing Timber and sawing Boards, others in making Bricks, &c.
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Page 742
I have sometimes, indeed, suspected, that those Papers are the Manufacture of foreign Enemies among you, who write with a view of disgracing your Country,.