The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 1 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 231

several lengths
are united, ought to be tied down with a waxed thread, to prevent
their acting in the manner of points. I have tried the experiment
twice, when the air was as dry as we ever have it, and so clear that
not a cloud could be seen, and found the twine each time in a small
degree electrised positively. The kite had three metalline points
fixed to it: one on the top, and one on each side. That the twine
was electrised, appeared by the separating of two small cork balls,
suspended on the twine by fine flaxen threads, just above where the
silk was tied to it, and sheltered from the wind. That the twine
was electrised positively, was proved, by applying to it the wire
of a charged bottle, which caused the balls to separate further,
without first coming nearer together. This experiment showed, that
the electricity in the air, at those times, was denser above than
below. But that cannot be always the case; for you know we have
frequently found the thunder-clouds in the negative state, attracting
electricity from the earth; which state, it is probable, they are
always in when first formed, and till they have received a sufficient
supply. How they come afterwards, towards the latter end of the
gust, to be in the positive state, which is sometimes the case, is a
subject for further enquiry.

After the above experiments with the wooden needle, I formed a cross,
of two pieces of wood, of equal length, intersecting each other at
right angles in the middle, hung it horizontally upon a central
pin, and set a light horse with his rider, upon each extremity;
whereupon, the whole being nicely balanced, and each courser urged on
by an electrised point of a pair of spurs, I was entertained with an
electrical horse-race.

I have contrived an electrical air thermometer, and made several
experiments with it, that have afforded me much satisfaction and
pleasure. It is extremely sensible of any alteration in the state
of the included air, and fully determines that controverted point,
Whether there be any heat in the electric fire? By the enclosed
draught, and the following description, you will readily apprehend
the construction of it. (See Plate II.)

A B is a glass tube, about eleven inches long, and one inch diameter
in the bore. It has a brass ferrule cemented on each end, with a top
and bottom part, C and D, to be screwed on, air-tight, and taken off
at pleasure. In the centre of the bottom part D, is a male screw,
which goes into a

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Text Comparison with The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 3 [of 3]

Page 40
So that the new colonies would soon be full of people; and from the advantage of their situation, become much more terrible to the French settlements, than those are now to us.
Page 95
The editor thinks it necessary to add the following further explanations.
Page 121
Pardon this digression, and I return to governor Denny; but first let me do governor Hamilton the justice to observe, that whether from the uprightness of his own disposition, or from the odious light the practice had been set in on Denny's account, or from both; he did not attempt these bargains, but passed such laws as he thought fit to pass, without any _previous_ stipulation of pay for them.
Page 126
The words of the _sixth_ article are, "That the payments by the tenants to the proprietaries of their rents, shall be according to the terms of their respective grants, as if such act had never been passed.
Page 189
" You will find those messages on your own journals every year of the war to the very last; and you did accordingly give 200,000_l.
Page 212
--And hence it is, that the king cannot erect or establish any law martial or military command, by any commission which may supersede and not be subject to the supreme civil magistrate, within the respective precincts of the civil jurisdictions of said colonies and plantations, otherwise than in such manner as the said law martial and military commissions are annexed or subject to the supreme civil jurisdiction within his majesty's realms and dominions of Great Britain and Ireland; and hence it is, that the establishment and exercise of such commands and commissions would be illegal[114].
Page 213
unless in time of war and cases of extreme exigency.
Page 256
Franklin at the time I believe occasionally used to write his notes on such cards.
Page 258
Respecting _frugality_; the manner of living in America is more simple and less expensive than that in England: plain tables, plain clothing, and plain furniture in houses prevail, with few carriages of pleasure; there, an expensive appearance hurts credit, and is avoided: in England, it is often assumed to gain credit, and continued to ruin.
Page 259
Respecting prospects of greater future ability, Britain has none such.
Page 287
It is very common with authors in their first performances, to talk to their readers thus, If this meets with a suitable reception, or, if this should meet with due encouragement, I shall hereafter publish, &c.
Page 294
If she would have been so kind as to have moderated her visits to ten times a day, and staid but half an hour at a time, I should have been contented, and I believe never have given you this trouble.
Page 307
We are taxed twice as much by our idleness, three times as much by our pride, and four times as much by our folly; and from these taxes the commissioners cannot ease or deliver us, by allowing an abatement.
Page 339
By observing the degree of heat obtained by different kinds of motion we may form an estimate of the quantity of exercise given by each.
Page 349
A committee of education, who shall superintend the school-instruction of the children and youth of the free blacks; they may either influence them to attend regularly the schools, already established in this city, or form others with this view; they shall, in either case, provide, that the pupils may receive such learning, as is necessary for their future situation in life; and especially a deep impression of the most important, and generally acknowledged moral and religious principles.
Page 378
Seeing this, I said, we should never get through the crowd.
Page 381
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nature of its explosion, 280.
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Pg 131.