The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 1 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 237

Attraction and Repulsion.--Reply to
other Subjects in the preceding Paper.--Numerous Ways of kindling
Fire.--Explosion of Water.--Knobs and Points._


_London, Feb. 20, 1762._

SIR,

I received your ingenious letter of the 12th of March last, and thank
you cordially for the account you give me of the new experiments you
have lately made in electricity.--It is a subject that still affords
me pleasure, though of late I have not much attended to it.

Your second experiment, in which you attempted, without success, to
communicate positive electricity by vapour ascending from electrised
water, reminds me of one I formerly made, to try if negative
electricity might be produced by evaporation only. I placed a large
heated brass plate, containing four or five square feet on an
electric stand; a rod of metal, about four feet long, with a bullet
at its end, extended from the plate horizontally. A light lock of
cotton, suspended a fine thread from the cieling, hung opposite to,
and within an inch of the bullet. I then sprinkled the heated plate
with water, which arose fast from it in vapour. If vapour should be
disposed to carry off the electrical, as it does the common fire from
bodies, I expected the plate would, by losing some of its natural
quantity, become negatively electrised. But I could not perceive, by
any motion in the cotton, that it was at all affected: nor by any
separation of small cork-balls suspended from the plate, could it be
observed that the plate was in any manner electrified.

Mr. Canton here has also found, that two tea-cups, set on electric
stands, and filled, one with boiling, the other with cold water,
and equally electrified, continued equally so, notwithstanding the
plentiful evaporation from the hot water. Your experiment and his
agreeing, show another remarkable difference between electric and
common fire. For the latter quits most readily the body that contains
it, where water, or any other fluid, is evaporating from the surface
of that body, and escapes with the vapour. Hence the method, long in
use in the east, of cooling liquors, by wrapping the bottles round
with a wet cloth, and exposing them to the wind. Dr. Cullen, of
Edinburgh, has given some experiments of cooling by evaporation; and
I was present at one made by Dr. Hadley, then professor of chemistry
at Cambridge, when, by repeatedly wetting the ball of a thermometer
with spirit, and quickening the evaporation by the blast of a
bellows, the mercury fell from 65, the state of warmth in the common
air, to 7, which is 22 degrees below

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Text Comparison with The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 3 [of 3]

Page 23
_ The treasurers here meant are only for the general funds, and not for the particular funds of each colony, which remain in the hands of their own treasurers at their own disposal.
Page 44
_Fourthly_, By the laws and statutes of England, the chief rents, honours, and castles of the crown are taxed, and _pay their proportion_ to the supplies that are granted to the king for the defence of the realm and support of government: his majesty, the nobility of the realm, and all the British subjects, do now actually contribute their proportion towards the defence of America in general, and this province in particular: and it is in a more especial manner the.
Page 93
On the other hand, I will hazard an opinion, that valuable as the French possessions in the West Indies are, and undeniable the advantages they derive from them, there is.
Page 102
In the year 1730, by order of the then lords commissioners of trade and plantations, an account was taken of the number of people in this colony, and then there appeared to be 15,302 white persons, and 2633 blacks.
Page 153
with the vouchers to us produced in support thereof, and do find the same account to be just, and that he has expended, in the immediate service of this province, the sum of _seven hundred and fourteen pounds, ten shillings and seven-pence_, out of the sum of _fifteen hundred pounds_ sterling to him remitted and paid, exclusive of any allowance or charge for his support and services for the province.
Page 180
_ There was such an application under consideration in New York:--and do you apprehend they could suppose the right of parliament to lay a tax in America was only local, and confined to the case of a deficiency in a particular colony, by a refusal of its assembly to raise the necessary supplies? _A.
Page 201
Strahan, which will be found in the order of its date, in a subsequent part of this work.
Page 206
I apprehend, that the ministry, at least the American part of it, being fully persuaded of the right of parliament, think it ought to be enforced, whatever may be the consequences; and at the same time do not believe, there is even now any abatement of the trade between the two countries on account of these disputes; or that if there is, it is small, and cannot long continue.
Page 223
Burke tells us (in his speech in 1774) that this preambulary tax had lost us at once the benefit of the west and of the east; had thrown open folding-doors to contraband; and would be the means of giving the profits of the colony-trade to every nation but ourselves.
Page 224
(Copy.
Page 248
We know you may do us a great deal of mischief, but we are determined to bear it patiently as long as we can; but if you flatter yourselves with beating us into submission, you know neither the people nor the country.
Page 288
How different from this character is that of the good-natured, gay Eugenius? who never spoke yet but with a design to divert and please; and who was never yet baulked in his intention.
Page 300
In order to examine the justice and truth of this heavy charge, let us recur to that character.
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How much more than is necessary do we spend in sleep! forgetting, that "the sleeping fox.
Page 330
I.
Page 353
Our wealth, of late years much encreased, is one strong temptation, our defenceless state another, to induce an enemy to attack us; while the acquaintance they have lately gained with our Bay and river, by means of the prisoners and flags of truce they have had among us; by spies which they almost every where maintain, and perhaps from traitors among ourselves; with the facility of getting pilots to conduct them; and the known absence of ships of war, during the greatest part of the year, from both Virginia and New York, ever since the war began, render the appearance of success to the enemy far more promising, and therefore highly encrease our danger.
Page 366
Was it not worthy of his care, that the world should say he was an honest and a good man? I like better the concluding sentiment in the old song, called the old man's wish, wherein, after wishing for a warm house in a country town, an easy horse, some good old authors, ingenious and cheerful companions, pudding on Sundays, with stout ale and a bottle of burgundy, &c.
Page 376
Franklin; and the last day that he passed in England, having given out that he should depart the day before, we spent together, without any interruption, from morning till night.
Page 395
on different coloured cloths, ii.
Page 409
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