The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 1 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 32

able to compare beginnings so little auspicious, with the figure I
have since made.

On my arrival at Philadelphia I was in my working dress, my best
cloaths being to come by sea. I was covered with dirt; my pockets
were filled with shirts and stockings; I was unacquainted with a
single soul in the place, and knew not where to seek for a lodging.
Fatigued with walking, rowing, and having passed the night without
sleep, I was extremely hungry, and all my money consisted of a
Dutch dollar, and about a shilling's worth of coppers, which I gave
to the boatmen for my passage. As I had assisted them in rowing,
they refused it at first; but I insisted on their taking it. A man
is sometimes more generous when he has little, than when he has
much money; probably because, in the first case, he is desirous of
concealing his poverty.

I walked towards the top of the street, looking eagerly on both
sides, till I came to Market-street, where I met a child with a
loaf of bread. Often had I made my dinner on dry bread. I enquired
where he had bought it, and went straight to the baker's shop which
he pointed out to me. I asked for some biscuits, expecting to find
such as we had at Boston; but they made, it seems, none of that sort
at Philadelphia. I then asked for a three-penny loaf; they made no
loaves of that price. Finding myself ignorant of the prices, as well
as of the different kinds of bread, I desired him to let me have
three penny-worth of bread of some kind or other. He gave me three
large rolls. I was surprised at receiving so much: I took them,
however, and having no room in my pockets, I walked on with a roll
under each arm, eating the third. In this manner I went through
Market-street to Fourth-street, and passed the house of Mr. Read, the
father of my future wife. She was standing at the door, observed me,
and thought with reason, that I made a very singular and grotesque

I then turned the corner, and went through Chesnut-street, eating my
roll all the way; and having made this round, I found myself again on
Market-street wharf, near the boat in which I arrived. I stepped into
it to take a draught of the river water; and finding myself satisfied
with my first roll, I gave the other two to a woman and her child,
who had come down the river with us in the boat, and

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Text Comparison with Experiments and Observations on Electricity Made at Philadelphia in America

Page 0
He was only apprized of the step that had been thus taken, while the first sheets were in the press, and time enough for him to transmit some farther remarks, together with a few corrections and additions, which are placed at the end, and may be consulted in the perusal.
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Place it on a non-electric, and touch the wire, you will get it out in a short time; but soonest.
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As often as he touches it, he will be electrified _plus_; and any one standing on the floor may draw a spark from him.
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Take a book whose cover is filletted with gold; bend a wire of eight or ten inches long in the form of (_m_) FIG.
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This difference between fire-light and sun-light, is another thing that seems new and extraordinary to us.
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The magical picture is made thus.
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turn twelve sparks, to the thimbles, which make seven thousand two hundred sparks; and the bullet of the under surface receiving as many from the thimbles; those bullets moving in the time near two thousand five hundred feet.
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Water being electrified, the vapours arising from it will be equally electrified; and floating in the air, in the form of clouds, or otherwise, will retain that quantity of electrical fire, till they meet with other clouds or bodies not so much electrified, and then will communicate as beforementioned.
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four square inches of that surface retain their atmosphere with four times the force that one square inch retains its atmosphere.
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As they move round, you see that scale draw nigher to the floor, and dip more when it comes over the punch; and if that be placed at a proper distance, the scale will snap and discharge its fire into it.
Page 42
But, if the electrical fluid so easily pervades glass, how does the vial become _charged_ (as we term it) when we hold it in our hands? Would not the fire thrown in by the wire pass through to our hands, and so escape into the floor? Would not the bottle in that case be left just as we found it, uncharged, as we know a metal bottle so attempted to be charged would be? Indeed, if there be the least crack, the minutest solution of continuity in the glass, though it remains so tight that nothing else we know of will pass, yet the extremely subtile electrical fluid flies through such a crack with the greatest freedom, and such a bottle we know can never be charged: What then makes the difference between such a bottle and one that is sound, but this, that the fluid can pass through the one, and not through the other?[8] 29.
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That this electrical fluid or fire is strongly attracted by glass, we know from the quickness and violence with which it is resumed by the part that had been deprived of it, when there is an opportunity.
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When the glass has received and, by its attraction, forced closer together so much of this electrified fluid, as that the power of attracting and condensing in the one, is equal to the power of expansion in the other, it can imbibe no more, and that remains its constant whole quantity; but each surface would receive more, if the repellency of what is in the opposite surface did not resist its entrance.
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But thus it may: after every stroke, before you pass your hand up to make another, let the second person apply his finger to the wire, take the spark, and then withdraw his finger; and so on till he has drawn a number of sparks; thus will the inner surface be exhausted, and the outer surface charged; then wrap a sheet of gilt paper close round the outer surface, and grasping it in your hand you may receive a shock by applying the finger of the other hand to the wire: for now the vacant pores in the inner surface resume their quantity, and the overcharg'd pores in the outer surface discharge that overplus; the equilibrium being restored through your body, which could not be restored through the glass.
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Hence we see the.
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ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT, _proving that the_ Leyden Bottle _has no more electrical Fire in it when charged, than before; nor less when discharged: That in discharging, the Fire does not issue from the Wire and the Coating at the same Time, as some have thought, but that the Coating always receives what is discharged by the Wire, or an equal Quantity; the outer Surface being always in a negative State of Electricity, when the inner Surface is in a positive State_.
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[2] Our tubes are made here of green glass, 27 or 30 inches long, as big as can be grasped.