The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 1 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 88

academy as "a foundation for posterity
to erect a seminary of learning more extensive, and suitable to
future circumstances." In pursuance of this plan, the constitutions
were drawn up and signed on the 13th of November, 1749. In these,
twenty-four of the most respectable citizens of Philadelphia were
named as trustees. In the choice of these, and in the formation of
his plan, Franklin is said to have consulted chiefly with Thomas
Hopkinson, Esq; the Rev. Richard Peters, then secretary of the
province, Tench Francis, Esq. attorney-general, and Dr. Phineas Bond.

The following article shews a spirit of benevolence worthy of
imitation; and, for the honour of our city, we hope that it continues
to be in force.

"In case of the disability of the _rector_, or any master
(established on the foundation by receiving a certain salary) through
sickness, or any other natural infirmity, whereby he may be reduced
to poverty, the trustees shall have power to contribute to his
support, in proportion to his distress and merit, and the stock in
their hands."

The last clause of the fundamental rules is expressed in language so
tender and benevolent, so truly parental, that it will do everlasting
honour to the hearts and heads of the founders.

"It is hoped and expected that the trustees will make it their
pleasure, and in some degree their business, to visit the academy
often; to encourage and countenance the youth, to countenance and
assist the masters, and, by all means in their power, advance the
usefulness and reputation of the design; that they will look on
the students as, in some measure, their own children, treat them
with familiarity and affection; and when they have behaved well,
gone through their studies, and are to enter the world, they shall
zealously unite, and make all the interest that can be made to
promote and establish them, whether in business, offices, marriages,
or any other thing for their advantage, in preference to all other
persons whatsoever, even of equal merit."

The constitutions being signed and made public, with the names of
the gentlemen proposing themselves as trustees and founders, the
design was so well approved of by the public-spirited citizens of
Philadelphia, that the sum of eight hundred pounds per annum, for
five years, was in the course of a few weeks subscribed for carrying
it into execution; and in the beginning of January following (viz.
1750) three of the schools were opened, namely, the Latin and
Greek schools, the Mathematical school, and the English school.
In pursuance of an article in the original plan, a school for
educating sixty boys and thirty girls (in the charter

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Text Comparison with The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 2 [of 3]

Page 22
But as this has never been observed in any age, if it be supposeable that is all.
Page 29
_At its upper end_ it becomes visible, by the warm air brought up to the cooler region, where its moisture begins to be condensed into thick vapour, by the cold, and is seen first at A, the highest part, which being now cooled, condenses what rises next at B, which condenses that at C, and that condenses what is rising at D, the cold operating by the contact of the vapours faster in a right line downwards, than the vapours themselves can climb in a spiral line upwards; they climb, however, and as by continual addition they grow denser, and, consequently, their centrifugal force greater, and being risen above the concentrating currents that compose the whirl, fly off, spread, and form a cloud.
Page 68
and while they supply matter for keeping up that sweat, by drinking frequently of a thin evaporable liquor, water mixed with rum; but if the sweat stops, they drop, and sometimes die suddenly, if a sweating is not again brought on by drinking that liquor, or, as some rather chuse in that case, a kind of hot punch, made with water, mixed with honey, and a considerable proportion of vinegar? May there not be in negroes a quicker evaporation of the perspirable matter from their skins and lungs, which, by cooling them more, enables them to bear the sun's heat better than whites do? (if that is a fact, as it is said to be; for the alledged necessity of having negroes rather than whites, to work in the West-India fields, is founded upon it) though the colour of their skins would otherwise make them more sensible of the sun's heat, since black cloth heats much sooner, and more, in the sun, than white cloth.
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Among the rest, I threw out my conjecture, that the said appearance might be caused by a great number of little animals, floating on the surface of the sea, which, on being disturbed, might, by expanding their finns, or otherwise moving themselves, expose such a part of their bodies as exhibits a luminous appearance, somewhat in the manner of a glow-worm, or fire-fly: that these animals may be more numerous in some places than others; and, therefore, that the appearance above-mentioned being fainter and stronger in different places, might be owing to that: that certain circumstances of weather, &c.
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Then placing the boat at one end of the trough, the weight would draw it through the water to the other.
Page 131
In the day time they are easily avoided, unless in a very thick fog.
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| | | | |Oct 29, 1776 | | Nov | | | | | | | | | | | | 1| 10 | | | 78 |WSW | E½N | 109 |No ob|68 12| | | --| | 4 | 71 | 81 | | | | | | | | 2| 8 | | 71 | 75 | N | | | | |Some sparks in | | --| 12 | | | 78 | | | 141 |ditto|65 23|the water these| | --| | 4 | 67 | 76 | | | | | |two last nights| | 3| 8 | | | 76 | NW | ESE½E| | | | | | --| 12 | | | 76 | | EbS | 160 |37 0|62 7| .
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It is to be observed, that the entering air will not be warm at first lighting the fire, but heats gradually as the fire increases.
Page 190
or opened at pleasure.
Page 208
High funnels, with small and low openings, may indeed be supplied thro' a less space, because, for reasons that will appear hereafter, the _force of levity_, if one may so speak, being greater in such funnels, the cool air enters the room with greater velocity, and consequently more enters in the same time.
Page 235
_Dimensions of the Parts.
Page 287
Do you think any person ought to be harmed in his body, name or goods, for mere speculative opinions, or his external way of worship?--_Ans.
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All princes who are disposed to become tyrants must probably approve of this opinion, and be willing to establish it; but is it not a dangerous one? since, on that principle, if the tyrant commands his army to attack and destroy, not only an unoffending neighbour nation, but even his own subjects, the army is bound to obey.
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The labourers in their own countries are, as I am informed, worse fed, lodged, and clothed.
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This five hundredth part of the citizens have the privilege.
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directions to bricklayers respecting, 251.
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