The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 2 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

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...TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

This is Volume 2 of a 3-volume set. The other two volumes...

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... ...

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...by B. Franklin 49

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... 144

Extract of a letter from Mr. Tengnagel...

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... 256

Description of a new stove...

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...harmony and melody of the old Scotch tunes ...

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... Remarks on some of the foregoing observations, showing particularly
the effect which manners...

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... ...

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... ...

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...particles of air, and be
supported by them; for in the vacancies there is nothing they...

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...causes and circumstances, and, consequently, changes in its
specific gravity, must therefore be in continual motion.

A...

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...and support many other substances.

A particle of air loaded with adhering water, or any other...

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...communicates of
its heat to the neighbouring air.

The higher regions, having only the direct rays of...

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...air's moving in every part as fast as the earth or sea it covers.

He that...

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...carrying off
its fire. Warm winds afterwards blowing over that frozen surface will
be chilled by it....

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...way, as the eddy, or whirl, passes over land.

If it passes over water, the weight...

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...time, a tendency to
hinder any direct or rising spout, by carrying off the lower part...

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...I have not been able to differ from you
in sentiment concerning any thing else in...

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...into it, together with the wind I mentioned, by their
descent, which beat back the rising...

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...is easy. I take it, that the cloud begins
first of all to pour out drops...

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...too tedious, I would have observed a little
upon, in my own way, as, I think,...

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...shall now be obliged to consider the subject with a little more
attention.

I agree with you,...

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...described by Mr. Gordon in the _Transactions_, was, for
that reason, thought extraordinary; but he remarks...

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...press the roof
of a house _inwards_, or force _in_ the tiles, shingles, or thatch,
force a...

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...air, tiles, stones,
and animals themselves, which happen to be in their course, and all
kinds of...

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...spiral motion, in the
same manner as the water _descends_ spirally through the hole in the
tub...

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...it may burst their windows or walls
outwards, pluck off the roofs, and pluck up the...

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...to form a great
extent of cloud, though the spout should be over land, as those...

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...great weight to a
considerable height in the air, &c."

[Illustration: (cross-section of a whirlwind)]

These accounts, the...

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...you object, if water may be thus carried into the clouds, why
have we not salt...

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...a league and a half distance.

I think I formerly read in Dampier, or some other...

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...up with it.

There appeared, not far from the mouth of the harbour of St. John's,
two...

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...it shoots to supply, and becomes
apparent by its contracted passage through a non-electric medium.
Electric fire...

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...one come
across the stern of his vessel, and passed away from him. The water
came down...

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...the under region of the air, and make the upper descend,
whence sudden and wonderful condensations...

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...may, perhaps,
stop it too. Places liable to these appearances are very liable to
frequent and sudden...

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...is one way a proof of my hypothesis, viz. as
whirlwinds do not come under a...

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...difference. But as this is
the whole strength, so much water could not rise; therefore to...

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...lead,
sixteen bullets of which, of an ounce each, weigh as much in water
as one of...

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...and, therefore, ascend; for the rarefied air inclosed,
may more fall short of the same bulk...

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...compounded of this motion
from north to south, or _vice versa_; and of the difference between
its...

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...in the air we breathe, perhaps it is not
always a mark of that air's being...

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...other with some degree of force: now
this force, on this supposition, must not only act...

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...remember it. These
water-spouts were in the calm latitudes, that is, between the trade
and the variable...

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...reason of breaking
those spouts, by firing a cannon-ball through them, as thereby a
horizontal vent is...

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...be the same, whether suspended by the middle or by the
corner.

I make no doubt but...

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...I intend to send you a copy of it by
some other opportunity, for your perusal....

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...eyes and ears both concurring to give me this
sentiment, I could have no more evidence...

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...from all sides of it; so that supposing the cloud moves
south-easterly, those on the north-east...

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...trees, bending some tall trees round in a
circle swiftly and very surprisingly, though the progressive...

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...servant,

B. FRANKLIN.




TO MR. ALEXANDER SMALL, LONDON.

_On the North-East Storms in North...

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...a long canal
of water stopped at the end by a gate. The water is quite...

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...as to form a drop, that drop begins to fall. If it freezes
into a grain...

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...great part of North America. This fog was of a permanent
nature: it was dry, and...

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...air till it comes to the cold walls;
there, being condensed and made heavier, it descends...

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...will not otherwise conduct.

16. Thus wax rendered fluid, and glass softened by heat, will both...

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...the accumulation of electricity in the polar regions will be
prevented?

27. The _atmosphere of the polar...

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...Dr. Franklin, stating, that since he had first made
the observation concerning the south or south...

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...on the ball
with bellows; a second wetting and blowing, when the mercury is
down, carries it...

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...the same stuff. Thus, also, a damp moist air shall make a
man more sensible of...

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...pin or lancet. The
sensation that the separation by fire occasions, we call heat, or
burning. My...

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...by wood, and other combustibles, when burning,
existed in them before, in a solid state, being...

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...cold is nothing more than
the absence of heat or fire. Now if the quantity of...

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...the ether is
much quicker in evaporation. We accordingly went to his chamber,
where he had both...

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...earthen pots, unglazed, which let the
water gradually and slowly ooze through their pores, so as...

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...and while they supply
matter for keeping up that sweat, by drinking frequently of a thin
evaporable...

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...warmed by the friction of the air on its surface? To these
queries of imagination, I...

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...the surface of
the sea, might cause that appearance; for putrid fish, &c. they
said, will cause...

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...half inch
circle. Now the aperture of the eye, through which the light passes,
does not exceed...

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...which evaporating, and
the fluid part drying away in a course of years, would leave the...

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...much obliged to them. Under the care
and management of man, the labours of the little...

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...the
knowledge and practice of essential duties, we deserve reprehension.
For there is no rank in natural...

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...canal at
first, rather than a river, to throw out of consideration the effects
produced by the...

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...we know by
our long rivers in America. The Delaware, on which Philadelphia
stands, is in this...

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...the first, all make use of the same
water with their predecessors.

But a wave in water...

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...commonly runs during the flood at the rate
of two miles in an hour, and that...

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...in your opinion, that the rising of the
tides in rivers is not owing to the...

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...air would take up water
but not the salt that was mixed with it. It is...

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...as you observed in our late conversation, a very general
opinion, that _all rivers run into...

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...into the air.

Now, many rivers that are open to the sea widen much before they
arrive...

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...for the loss by
evaporation. And yet that bay is salt quite up to Annapolis.

As to...

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...walk abroad, and are at
the same time heated by the exercise, which double heat is...

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...by the author's not distinguishing between a great force
applied at once, or a small one...

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...the quantity of matter multiplied by the celerity,
(or _f_ = _c_ X _a_); and as...

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...forces equal? and since force and celerity in the same quantity
of matter are always in...

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...continually applied.
At least all our modern philosophers agree to tell us so.

Let me turn the...

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...fragments thrown into this oblique position, the disjointed
ends of a great number of strata of...

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...that its density increasing as it approached the centre,
in the same proportion as above the...

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...contained in
the surface of the globe has made it capable of becoming, as it is,
a...

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...over the explosion, but impressing with
the same force the fluid under it, creates a wave,...

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...the same with that, which, being attracted
by, and entering into other more solid matter, dilates...

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...water, since it will
quit a solid to unite with that fluid, and go off with...

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...have been from such considerations that the ancient
philosophers supposed a sphere of fire to exist...

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...and thereby wrecking and
deranging its surface, placing in different regions the effect of
centrifugal force, so...

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...the rumbling
sound being first heard at a distance, augmenting as it approaches,
and gradually dying away...

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...a similar effect. The strong thriving state of
your mint, in putrid air, seems to shew,...

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...fact to some
philosophical friends on my return to England, but it was not much
attended to....

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...I found your favour of the 16th of May (1771).
I wish I could, as you...

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...reach the earth in perhaps a third of that extent, of which I
somewhat doubt. In...

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...shall have found the substance that has it in the
greatest perfection, there will still remain...

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...so pleasing and so instructive.

You may possibly remember, that in or about the year 1758,...

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...ten years, and during all that time,
after the first change, I perceived no alteration. The...

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...came out with the same freedom, and, when in,
I could rattle them against its sides;...

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...same degrees of moisture or dryness,
I apprehend you will have so many comparable hygrometers, which,
being...

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...round a tumbler, with
strings of the same, from each side, meeting above it in a...

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...great agitation before, was instantly
calmed upon pouring in only a very small quantity of oil,...

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...being at sea in a fleet of 96 sail bound against Louisbourg,
I observed the wakes...

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...divers there, who, when under water in their business, need
light, which the curling of the...

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...from the drop, as from a centre, leaving a large clear
space. The quantity of this...

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...by some
oiliness proceeding from their bodies.

A gentleman from Rhode-island told me, it had been remarked,...

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...liberty to expand itself; and
it will spread on a surface that, besides being smooth to...

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...when large
sometimes break above and pour over it, doing great damage.

That this effect might in...

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...land upon, when
sickness made it more necessary, but could not effect a landing
through a violent...

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...in foam)
appeared in that whole space, though to windward and leeward of it
there were plenty;...

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...we had begun our
operations at a greater distance, the effect might have been more
sensible. And...

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...of that water must
pass by her sides, and with a swifter motion, which would retard...

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...in order to measure the time
taken up by the boat in passing from end to...

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... 7 ...

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...&c.

B. FRANKLIN.




TO MR. ALPHONSUS LE ROY, MEMBER OF SEVERAL ACADEMIES AT PARIS.[30]

...

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...move out of its way all the air its whole
dimension meets with between the pricked...

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...boat; and perhaps time, and the improvements
experience will afford, may make it applicable with advantage...

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...them extending parallel to
the twine, which thread being cut, they must begin to fall at...

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...their cables parting just as
the anchors came a-peak. Our cable held, and we got up...

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...and
better able to bear the jerk, which may save the anchor, and by that
means in...

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...sustain her.
Many bodies which compose a ship's cargo may be specifically lighter
than water, all these...

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...never have
another occasion of writing on this subject, I think I may as well
now, once...

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...same expense. For it is evident
that the same timber and plank consumed in raising the...

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...time. The advantage of such a vessel
is, that she needs no ballast, therefore swims either...

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...to keep a _look-out before_ in the
channel, but at sea it has been neglected. If...

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...and always acting in the water, not perpendicular to the side as
ours are, nor lifted...

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...the
surface; by which means much of the labour is lost. It is true, that
by placing...

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...air pass out at E, which striking forcibly against the water
abaft must push the boat...

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...moving power, every step
of her motion that amounts to a drop's breadth: and there being...

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...is subject to
this objection, that lying on the surface of the sea, it is liable...

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...to permit the kite's descending
into the undertow, or if you please lower into still water....

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...About
the year 1769 or 70, there was an application made by the board
of customs at...

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...Falmouth for the captains
of the packets, who slighted it however; but it is since printed...

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...vapour from a cup of tea in a warm room, and
the breath of an animal...

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...method of planking ships, if, instead
of thick single planks laid horizontally, we were to use...

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...will tow him along while lying on his back. Where force is
wanted to move a...

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...comfort in the passage may depend on his personal
character, as you must for so long...

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...the particulars above recommended of
little or no use to you. But there are frequently in...

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...the ship grind them as
fine as mustard.

The accidents I have seen at sea with large...

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...sugar than those of Vienna, a
thousand miles from the sea; because their sugar costs not...

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...38° 30′ and 40°
45′.

The most southern part of the shoals of Nantucket lie in about...

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... | | ...

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... | 60 | 70 | | ...

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...| 69 | | | colour,...

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...| 1| 7 A.M.| 68 | 63 | |...

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... |
| --| 6 P.M.| 64 | 55...

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... | | | ...

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... |
| --| ...

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... | | |...

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... |
| --| 12 | ...

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...|
| 9 | | 4 | ...

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...|
| 14 | 8 | | 70 |...

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... |
| 17 | 8...

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...4| 3 23| ...

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...| | | | ...

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...|N E |SW bS | 131 |20 0 | ...

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...7 |37 16| 80| 78 | omitted |NW bW|WNW ½N| 65 |...

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... | 80 | 77 |
| 23 |35 35 |40 52| 7...

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... 125 | | 83 | 80 |
| ...

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...Ditto. From this date the temperature of the air and water
was taken at...

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... contained was immediately tried by the thermometer, and found to be
70, which...

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...and striking out the hands
and feet that is necessary to produce progressive motion. But you
will...

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...surprize
may put all out of your mind. For though we value ourselves on being
reasonable knowing...

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...quite back, so that the face looks upwards, all the back
part of the head being...

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...I pushed the edges of these forward, and I struck the
water with their flat surfaces...

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...a radical cure. I
speak from my own experience, frequently repeated, and that of others
to whom...

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...which I have accustomed myself.
You know the cold bath has long been in vogue here...

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...by Dr. Lettsom, a young
American physician of much merit, and one of the peaceable sect...

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...works of Dr. Stark, including the experiments alluded to,
have since been published. _Editor._

[39] Dr. Perkins....

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...small paper of _Thoughts on the peopling of
Countries_[41], which, if I can find, I will...

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...induced
me to omit the practice. But talking afterwards with Mr. James, a
letter-founder in the same...

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...persons, specifying their professions or trades, who
had been cured there. I had the curiosity to...

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...subsist a considerable time
without any nourishment whatever.--A plant, with its flowers, fades
and dies immediately, if...

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...the treat,
which you are so kind as to promise me, of the resurrection of a...

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...several very easy experiments. Take any clear
glass bottle (a Florence flask stript of the straw...

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...latter is but just separated from the fuel, and then moves
only as it is carried...

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...seems but little; and, in so strong and cold a draught, warms
but little; so that...

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...In short, many of the diseases
proceeding from colds, as fevers, pleurisies, &c. fatal to very
great...

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...the heat being almost all saved; for it rays out almost
equally from the four sides,...

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...who have not been accustomed to it.

[Illustration: (of the Pensylvania fireplace)

_Plate VIII._ ...

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...the two.

(iii iii) Side-plates: These have each a pair of ledges to receive
the side-edges of...

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...are of wrought iron, about a third of an inch
thick, with a button at bottom,...

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...a considerable heat. The smoke,
finding no passage upwards, turns over the top of the air-box,...

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...or opened at pleasure. When open, there will
be a strong draught of air through it...

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...fire on the
hearth-plate, not to be incommoded by the smoke, the sooner and
more will the...

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...or the trap-door bellows,
there is consequently less smoke from the fuel to make soot; then,
though...

Page 193

...is such
a strong draught into the chimney that not only the upright heat, but
also the...

Page 194

...lastly, the fire is so secured at night, that not one spark
can fly out into...

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...have (as the writer of this has) been present at a furnace
when the workmen were...

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...cold bed. The reason is, that
in these cases the pores all close at once, the...

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...obliged
to run frequently to the fire to warm themselves: and to physicians
to say, how much...

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...inches thickness, as you have room, but
let it stand at least four inches from the...

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...placing it
as far back in the groove as you can, to leave room for the...

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...the false back being
plaistered and white-washed, and the hearth reddened, the whole will
make a pretty...

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...wherever other openings shall be found. If
these happen to be small, _let those who sit...

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...ruffle us, anger does the most mischief, so of all
the malignant affections of the air,...

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...heat,
to as great an one of cold, without receiving any visible prejudice
thereby. I remember being...

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...to the bottom of a decanter
half filled with cold water; then putting a rag over...

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...the quill. (Plate IX. fig. 1.) If there
were any motion of air through the tube,...

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...compliance with custom, use the expression _draw_, when in
fact it is the superior weight of...

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...on
if the tight room is kept shut; for were there any force capable of
drawing constantly...

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...Suppose the distance to be half
an inch, and the door eight feet high, you find...

Page 209

...chimney.
M. Gauger, a very ingenious and intelligent French writer on the
subject, proposes with judgment to...

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...air from before the fire, and
be soonest tempered by the mixture. The same kind of...

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...into the chimney, sufficient to fill
the opening, being necessary to oppose and prevent the smoke...

Page 212

...of two feet long, or half the common
length of cordwood, may be burnt conveniently; and...

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...when wanted. This will indeed be an expence, but not an
useless one, since your cooks...

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...from another, nor under the necessity
of lending. A variety of these means have been already...

Page 215

...pressing down
through it in whatever position the wind may have placed its opening.

I know a...

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...in them. The surrounding atmosphere is
frequently changing its temperature; but stacks of funnels, covered
from winds...

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...a free issue from the funnel, must push out of its
way or oblige the air...

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...effect might have been different.
But on this I can give no certainty. It seems a...

Page 219

...wonderfully: your people are very ingenious
in the management of fire; but they may still learn...

Page 220

...two hours in a bath
twice a week, covered with water, which certainly is much damper
than...

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...in it as a part of their lectures. The addition
to their present apparatus need not...

Page 222

...rebuilding the funnel: but the landlord
rather chose to stop up the chimney.

Another puzzling case I...

Page 223

...and then wood
laid on, the smoke would rise to A, turn over the edge of...

Page 224

...with
necessaries, and have decent habitations. The obvious reason is,
that the working hours of such people...

Page 225

...speculation, for keeping rooms warmer in cold weather
than they generally are, and with less fire....

Page 226

...off. Several of my acquaintance, having seen this simple
machine in my room, have imitated it...

Page 227

...chimneys might, by means of smoke-jack vanes, be applied to some
mechanical purposes, where a small...

Page 228

...is a
common case, if a chimney of thirty or forty feet high were built
over one...

Page 229

...with
less fire. For this purpose I would propose erecting the funnel close
to the grate, so...

Page 230

...the kitchen with its chimney; B an iron stove in the stove-room.
In a corner of...

Page 231

...drawing state day
and night, winter and summer.

Blacking of funnels, exposed to the sun, would probably...

Page 232

...consuming
all its smoke._[60] _By Dr. B._ FRANKLIN.


Towards the end of the last century...

Page 233

...to have been formed on the same
principle, and probably from the hint thereby given, though...

Page 234

...draft downwards in the stove is the pressure of the
outward air, which, falling into the...

Page 235

...edges of the
small plates Y, Y, figure 12; which plates meeting at X close the
front.

B...

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... ...

Page 237

... 0 9½
Length of the...

Page 238

... 0
Depth of the bars at the top, ...

Page 239

...three knobs h h h
against the inside of the vase, and slipping the drawer into...

Page 240

...the whole is warmed.

If you should have occasion to make your first fire at hours...

Page 241

...prevent your fire burning in
your absence, you may do it by taking the brass flame...

Page 242

...a great
part goes away in smoke which you see as it rises, but it affords
you...

Page 243

...them, by which means the fires
made in this stove are of much longer duration than...

Page 244

...that the air
passing in the flame of my stove, and in the flame of a...

Page 245

...in a column through the box
C, into the cavities of the bottom plate, like water...

Page 246

...I have contrived another grate
for coals, which has in part the same property of burning...

Page 247

...appearance of the fire. Here then is the use of this
swivel grate. By a push...

Page 248

...heating the brick
work in its passage, so that more fire must be made as the...

Page 249

...likely to procure assent. Pope's rule

To speak, though sure, with seeming...

Page 250

...correspondence has not been
regularly continued. One thing I am sure of, that it has been...

Page 251

...are
not lost by this destructive element. Of late, indeed, they begin
here to leave off wainscoting...

Page 252

...as to lap or cover each other an inch, and a
slip of the same copper,...

Page 253

...request I now send you the arithmetical curiosity,
of which this is the history.

Being one day...

Page 254

...bent row of 8 numbers, ascending and descending
diagonally, viz. from 16 ascending to 10, and...

Page 255

...wherever it was
placed on the greater square, should likewise make 2056. This I sent
to our...

Page 256

...numbers contained in each of
the twenty excentric spaces, taken all around, make, with the central
number,...

Page 257

...an account of the new instrument lately
added here to the great number that charming science...

Page 258

...make a single instrument there should be at least six
glasses blown of each size; and...

Page 259

...the smallest.--A square shank comes from
its thickest end through the box, on which shank a...

Page 260

...and the other
notes of the octave with the seven prismatic colours, _viz._ C, red;
D, orange;...

Page 261

...sound
did not seem faint, as if at a distance, like distant sounds through
air, but smart...

Page 262

...yet the explosion produces a sound that is heard at that
distance, and for seventy miles...

Page 263

...since
the memory is capable of retaining for some moments a perfect idea of
the pitch of...

Page 264

...you first discern the
image of the window, the panes appear dark, and the cross bars...

Page 265

...of that arising from the
scenery and dancing. Most tunes of late composition, not having
this natural...

Page 266

...véritables beautés de
l'art, & à la musique vraiment naturelle."




TO MR. PETER FRANKLIN, NEWPORT, NEW ENGLAND.

...

Page 267

...the graces of prose oratory, while it added
the pleasure of harmony. A modern song, on...

Page 268

...mysterious art_,
twice repeated; _magic charms can ne'er relieve you_, three times.
_Nor can heal the wounded...

Page 269

...is formed it must be put under a strong press, to
force out the water.

4. Then...

Page 270

...by two other men at the other
vat; and one fire serves.

FOOTNOTE:

[65] Communicated by Dr. Franklin...

Page 271

...several other new
words have been introduced into our parliamentary language. For
example, I find a verb...

Page 272

...progress, the study of our tongue might become
much more general. Those, who have employed some...

Page 273

...its varied
appearance. Certainly the omitting this prominent letter makes a
line appear more even, but renders...

Page 274

...printers, more sensibly,
place an interrogation at the beginning as well as at the end of...

Page 275

... | o |The first VOWEL naturally, and deepest|
...

Page 276

...| gathered up, leaving a small opening|
| *ų |Um, un; as...

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... ...

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... |
| ...

Page 279

...| | passing _between_ the moist end of |
...

Page 280

... |
| v |Ever. ...

Page 281

...with none or very little help of tongue,
...

Page 282

...to let out the sounding breath.

...

Page 283

...The
true sound of the _i_ is that we now give to _e_ in the words...

Page 284

...Dear Sir,

Your faithful and affectionate Servant,

M. S.

Dr. Franklin.


ANSWER TO...

Page 285

...plϖuman, ϖr ƕi
inhabitant ϖv e viledԻ. It iz frϖm prezent iusedԻ onli, ƕi miiniŋ ϖv
uųrds...

Page 286

...of certain words, which occurred
very frequently in our English writings, and which of course every
American...

Page 287

...attacked your reputation lately? and what can the
Junto do towards securing it?

17. Is their any...

Page 288

...of Fundy
than the Bay of Delaware?

Is the emission of paper-money safe?

What is the reason that...

Page 289

...even
a common letter.

Let the pieces read by the scholars in this class be short; such...

Page 290

...a satire, a letter,
blank verse, Hudibrastic, heroic, &c. But let such lessons be
chosen for reading,...

Page 291

...got by heart a short
table of the principal epochs in chronology. They may begin with
Rollin's...

Page 292

...themselves transcribed by the scholar.

Dr. Johnson's Ethices Elementa, or First Principles of Morality,
may now be...

Page 293

...up next to the best, and another to the third.
Commendations, encouragement, and advice to the...

Page 294

...to consult immediately when you meet
with a word you do not comprehend the precise meaning...

Page 295

...a little more
room in the country, marriage is a little more encouraged there, and
the births...

Page 296

...the attention of Great Britain.

10. But, in proportion to the increase of the colonies, a...

Page 297

...lands, till
the island became full of English. And, were the English now driven
into Wales by...

Page 298

...as they
are the cause of the generation of multitudes, by the encouragement
they afford to marriage.

15....

Page 299

...16) will soon be filled
by natural generation. Who can now find the vacancy made in...

Page 300

...and powerful; or, rather, increase a nation tenfold
in numbers and strength.

...

Page 301

...is perhaps impossible to prove, that _being_, or
life itself, has any other value than what...

Page 302

...increases families, that live on their fortunes, and which,
in England, we call the gentry; and...

Page 303

...and as
some of our towns are visibly and vastly grown in bulk, I dare not
suppose,...

Page 304

...Rome were at any period calculated
to promote the happiness of individuals, it is not my...

Page 305

...France were a
real weakness, opposed to the military manners founded upon poverty
and a rugged disposition,...

Page 306

...cannot help observing, however, that this is much more the case in
extensive countries, especially at...

Page 307

...Europe: and it is particularly observable,
that none of the English colonies became any way considerable,...

Page 308

...are
innumerable, capable by their form, size, and strength, of sailing
all seas. Our seamen are equally...

Page 309

...every
one who can say, _Homo sum, &c._"

_Scheme of a voyage, by subscription_, to convey the...

Page 310

... 13640
...

Page 311

...the same boards. Thus the
officers, appointed to collect the accounts in each district, have
only to...

Page 312

...bushel of wheat, A and B meeting at half
distance with their commodities to make the...

Page 313

...Arts, and Manufactures. Vol. I, p. 350. B. V.




_Political Fragments, supposed either to...

Page 314

...fail of procuring a sufficiency
for any of them. If indeed any government is so imprudent,...

Page 315

...of course. As the seasons vary in different
countries, the calamity of a bad harvest is...

Page 316

...5. _Of Prohibitions, with Respect to the Exportation of Gold and
Silver._]

Could Spain and Portugal have...

Page 317

...or coming; and have otherwise
free liberty to trade and reside in his dominions.

As a maritime...

Page 318

...your dare;--we'll sell it for you, for less money, or take
it for nothing.

Being thus attacked...

Page 319

...folks seem to think they ought never to be easy till England
becomes another Lubberland, where...

Page 320

...were made for the poor,
the less they provided for themselves, and of course became poorer.
And,...

Page 321

...several points, interesting to those
concerned in agriculture, are from time to time discussed by some
able...

Page 322

...the help of
these, artful men overpower their wisdom, and dupe its possessors:
and if we may...

Page 323

...be prudent,
live within bounds, and preserve what they have gained for their
posterity: others, fond of...

Page 324

...of the
world, and the rest of the twenty-four hours might be leisure and
pleasure.

What occasions then...

Page 325

...moon, unless with Herschel's telescope; so vast are
the regions still in wood.

It is, however, some...

Page 326

...a
smuggling country, one had frequent opportunities of buying many
of the expensive articles used in a...

Page 327

...his honester and perhaps
much poorer neighbours? He will perhaps be ready to tell me, that
he...

Page 328

...postage. When any letter, not written by them or on their
business, is franked by any...

Page 329

...hear them exclaiming against the Americans, and for every
little infringement of the acts of trade,...

Page 330

...the same time become more careful, arm their
merchant ships better, and render them not so...

Page 331

...to
hazard all the dangers of battle. Sickness on board of king's ships
is also more common...

Page 332

...when
you force that, methinks you should excuse the other.

But it may be said, to give...

Page 333

...for preventing a national calamity. Then
I would press the rest of the judges; and, opening...

Page 334

...society that might be
proposed to him.

That it is better a hundred guilty persons should escape,...

Page 335

...stolen." The man's
answer, if candidly examined, will, I imagine, appear reasonable,
as being founded on the...

Page 336

...being
its only apparent, and probably its true and real motive and
encouragement. Justice is as strictly...

Page 337

...for ever, with other
punishment at the will of the magistrate; the practice of making
prizes being...

Page 338

...sake of humanity, that a stop were put to
this enormity. The United States of America,...

Page 339

...in Imitation of Scripture
Language[95]._


1. And it came to pass after these things, that...

Page 340

...with his lordship's own
words. See Vol. II. p. 472, 473.

"The following Parable against Persecution was...

Page 341

...the same practice both here and in New England.--To account
for this, we should remember, that...

Page 342

...was contracted to be paid when they were granted, as
the only consideration for the grant,...

Page 343

...establishing
bishops, where the minds of people are not yet prepared to receive
them cordially, lest the...

Page 344

...declaring their willingness that dissenters should be capable of
offices, enjoy the benefit of education in...

Page 345

...of slavery, or attempting to mend
the condition of slaves, it put me in mind of...

Page 346

...adopt our manners: our people will not
pollute themselves by intermarrying with them. Must we maintain...

Page 347

...a work, to be
excused from damnation.--How grossly are they mistaken, in imagining
slavery to be disavowed...

Page 348

...of accusing and abusing the other four hundred and
ninety-nine parts, at their pleasure; or they...

Page 349

...condemn it at pleasure.
Nor is it hereditary, as is the court of dernier resort in...

Page 350

...state of society, prior to the existence
of laws, if one man gave another ill-language, the...

Page 351

..._Advice_ to youth in reading, ii. 378.
to emigrants to...

Page 352

...corrected by vegetation, 129.
observations on the free use of,...

Page 353

... iii. 30.
...

Page 354

...an Indian who went to church, 389.

_Animal_ food, Franklin's abstinence from, i. 20.
...

Page 355

...them at Paris, i. 384.

_Belly-ache_, dry, lead a cause of, ii. 220.

...

Page 356

...ii. 210.
preface to proceedings of the town meeting of,...

Page 357

...the flame of, may be seen, ii. 90.

_Cann_, silver, a singular experiment on,...

Page 358

... their method of making large paper, 349.

_Circle_, magical, account of,...

Page 359

...wood, ii. 56, 77.
sensation of, how produced, 57.
...

Page 360

...i. 248.
how to remedy the want of, at sea,...

Page 361

...character for honesty, 378.
is money to a tradesman, 464.

...

Page 362

... on his protest, 202.

_Discontented_ dispositions...

Page 363

..._Effluvia_ of drugs, &c. will not pass through glass, i. 243.

_Electrical_ air-thermometer described,...

Page 364

... kiss, its force increased, 177.
kite, described, 268.
...

Page 365

...of population in, doubtful, 296.

_English_, effect of the ancient manners of, ii. 399.
...

Page 366

...on the Leyden phial, 434.
on different coloured cloths, ii....

Page 367

...Philadelphia, i. 103.

_Fire-places_, Pensylvanian, account of, ii. 225.
...

Page 368

...to death in summer, possibility of, ii. 84.

_French_ language, its general use, ii....

Page 369

... rod of, will not conduct a shock, _ibid._
when...

Page 370

...of, how to secure them from lightning, 375.
proposal for...

Page 371

...fires, 321.

_Howe_, lord, letter from, to Franklin, iii. 365.
...

Page 372

... not an American but a British interest, 275.

_Indians_,...

Page 373

...lightning in proportion to their thickness, 282.

_Islands_ far from a continent have little...

Page 374

..._Leyden_ bottle, its phenomena explained, i. 179.
analysed, 192.
...

Page 375

...accompanies it, _ibid._
observations on its effects on St. Bride's...

Page 376

...ever lost but by foreign conquest, 122.
probability of their...

Page 377

...than wood, why, ii. 56.

_Meteorological_ observations, ii. 1, 45, 66.

_Methusalem_ slept...

Page 378

...heat better, and cold worse, than whites, ii. 86.

_Newbury_, effects of a stroke...

Page 379

...a government, iii. 226.

_Orthography_, a new mode of, ii. 359.

_Osborne_, a...

Page 380

... bargain, 189.

_Pensylvania_, Franklin appointed clerk to the general...

Page 381

...double vessel built by, ii. 174.

_Philadelphia_, Franklin's first arrival at, i. 32.
...

Page 382

...279.

_Post-master_, and deputy post-master general, Franklin appointed to the
...

Page 383

...cheapness of, encourages idleness, ii. 415.

_Prussian_ edict, assuming claims over Britain, iii. 311.

...

Page 384

...that would be, iii. 466.

_Ridicule_, delight of the prince of Condé in, iii....

Page 385

...against the use of, at Paris, 278.

_Sea-water_, soon loses its luminous quality, i....

Page 386

...262.
if by too large openings...

Page 387

... should always be taken to sea in bottles, 175.

_Spots_...

Page 388

..._ibid._ 212.
medical effects of, _ibid._


T.

_Tariffs_,...

Page 389

...in, may be advantageous to each party, 418.
inland carriage...

Page 390

...ii. 110.

_Visits_, unseasonable and importunate, letter on, iii. 432.

_Unintelligibleness_, a fault...

Page 391

...produce heat, 49, 96.
supposed originally all salt, 91.
...

Page 392

... observations on, by Mr. Colden, 52.
whether confined to,...

Page 393

...the pound abbreviation 'l.' has been
italicized, so for example '123,321l.' has been replaced...

Page 394

... Pg 54. 'canon-ball' replaced by 'cannon-ball'.
Pg 55 FN [10]. 'Cadwalader'...

Page 395

...been added, or removed, in the
index. Only references within this volume have been...