The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 2 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 14

and support many other substances.

A particle of air loaded with adhering water, or any other matter, is
heavier than before and would descend.

The atmosphere supposed at rest, a loaded descending particle must
act with a force on the particles it passes between, or meets with,
sufficient to overcome, in some degree, their mutual repellency, and
push them nearer to each other.

[Illustration: (of air particles interacting)

A
O O O

F B C G
O O O O

O O O
D
O O O O
E
]

Thus, supposing the particles A B C D, and the other near them, to
be at the distance caused by their mutual repellency (confined by
their common gravity) if A would descend to E, it must pass between B
and C; when it comes between B and C, it will be nearer to them than
before, and must either have pushed them nearer to F and G, contrary
to their mutual repellency, or pass through by a force exceeding
its repellency with them. It then approaches D, and, to move it out
of the way, must act on it with a force sufficient to overcome its
repellency with the two next lower particles, by which it is kept in
its present situation.

Every particle of air, therefore, will bear any load inferior to the
force of these repulsions.

Hence the support of fogs, mists, clouds.

Very warm air, clear, though supporting a very great quantity of
moisture, will grow turbid and cloudy on the mixture of a colder air,
as foggy turbid air will grow clear by warming.

Thus the sun shining on a morning fog, dissipates it; clouds are seen
to waste in a sun-shiny day.

But cold condenses and renders visible the vapour; a tankard or
decanter filled with cold water will condense the moisture of warm
clear air on its outside, where it becomes visible as dew, coalesces
into drops, descends in little streams.

The sun heats the air of our atmosphere most near the surface of
the earth; for there, besides the direct rays, there are many
reflections. Moreover, the earth itself being heated,

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= | 6 45 | 5 15 | | 15 | 5 |Days inc.
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She has given us, by her numberless barbarities in the prosecution of the war, and in the treatment of prisoners, by her malice in bribing slaves to murder their masters, and savages to massacre the families of farmers, with her baseness in rewarding the unfaithfulness of servants, and debauching the virtue of honest seamen, intrusted with our property, so deep an impression of her depravity, that we never again can trust her in the management of our affairs and interests.
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O that moral Science were in as fair a way of Improvement, that Men would cease to be Wolves to one another, and that human Beings would at length learn what they now improperly call Humanity![102] I am glad my little Paper on the _Aurora.
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Page 760
They therefore deferr'd their Answer till the Day following; when their Speaker began, by expressing their deep Sense of the kindness of the Virginia Government, in making them that Offer; "for we know," says he, "that you highly esteem the kind of Learning taught in those Colleges, and that the Maintenance of our young Men, while with you, would be very expensive to you.