The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 2 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 190

or opened at pleasure. When open, there will
be a strong draught of air through it into the chimney, which will
presently carry off a cloud of smoke, and keep the room clear: if
the room be too hot like-wise, it will carry off as much of the warm
air as you please, and then you may stop it entirely, or in part, as
you think fit. By this means it is, that the tobacco smoke does not
descend among the heads of the company near the fire, as it must do
before it can get into common chimneys.

_The Manner of using this Fire-Place._

Your cord-wood must be cut into three lengths; or else a short
piece, fit for the fire-place, cut off, and the longer left for the
kitchen or other fires. Dry hickery, or ash, or any woods that burn
with a clear flame are rather to be chosen, because such are less
apt to foul the smoke-passages with soot; and flame communicates
with its light, as well as by contact, greater heat to the plates
and room. But where more ordinary wood is used, half a dry faggot
of brush-wood, burnt at the first making the fire in the morning,
is very advantageous, as it immediately, by its sudden blaze, heats
the plates, and warms the room (which with bad wood slowly kindling
would not be done so soon) and at the same time by the length of
its flame, turning in the passages, consumes and cleanses away the
soot that such bad smoaky wood had produced therein the preceding
day, and so keeps them always free and clean. When you have laid a
little back log, and placed your billets on small dogs, as in common
chimneys, and put some fire to them, then slide down your shutter
as low as the dogs, and the opening being by that means contracted,
the air rushes in briskly, and presently blows up the flames. When
the fire is sufficiently kindled, slide it up again.[46] In some of
these fire-places there is a little six-inch square trap-door of
thin wrought iron or brass, covering a hole of like dimensions near
the fore-part of the bottom plate, which being by a ring lifted up
towards the fire, about an inch, where it will be retained by two
springing sides fixed to it perpendicularly (_See the Plate, Fig.
4._) the air rushes in from the hollow under the bottom plate, and
blows the fire. Where this is used, the shutter serves only to close
the fire at nights. The more forward you can make your

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Text Comparison with Benjamin Franklin and the First Balloons

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view of the historic and scientific interest of these letters, they are now printed exactly according to the press-copies.
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Since writing the above, I am favour'd with your kind Letter of the 25th.
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to forward the Transactions, as well as to the Council for so readily ordering them on Application.
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It carried under it a large Lanthorn with inscriptions on its sides.
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Its bottom was open, and in the middle of the Opening was fixed a kind of Basket Grate in which Faggots and Sheaves of Straw were burnt.
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_La Machine poussee par le Vent s'est dirigee sur une des Allees du Jardin.
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Charles propose to go up.
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Air, will carry up a greater Weight than the other, which tho' vastly bigger was filled with an Air that could scarcely be more than twice as light.
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from whence I could well see it rise, & have an extensive View of the Region of Air thro' which, as the Wind sat, it was likely to pass.
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I hope they descended by Day-light, so as to see & avoid falling among Trees or on Houses, and that the Experiment was completed without any mischievous Accident which the Novelty of it & the want of Experience might well occasion.
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Tuesday Morning, Dec.
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2^d, which contains calculations in French relating to the balloon.
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"The Manuscript, containing some Particulars of the Experiment, which I enclose," mentioned in the Postscript, is a two-page account in French, in Franklin's handwriting, by an eye-witness of the voyage, M.
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