a strong draught into the chimney that not only the upright heat, but
also the back, sides, and downward heats are carried up the chimney
by that draught of air; and the warmth given before the fire, by
the rays that strike out towards the room, is continually driven
back, crouded into the chimney, and carried up by the same draught
of air. But here the upright heat strikes and heats the top plate,
which warms the air above it, and that comes into the room. The heat
likewise, which the fire communicates to the sides, back, bottom, and
air-box, is all brought into the room; for you will find a constant
current of warm air coming out of the chimney-corner into the room.
Hold a candle just under the mantle-piece, or breast of your chimney,
and you will see the flame bent outwards: by laying a piece of
smoaking paper on the hearth, on either side, you may see how the
current of air moves, and where it tends, for it will turn and carry
the smoke with it.
6. Thus, as very little of the heat is lost, when this fire-place is
used, _much less wood_ will serve you, which is a considerable
advantage where wood is dear.
7. When you burn candles near this fire-place, you will find that
the flame burns quite upright, and does not blare and run the tallow
down, by drawing towards the chimney, as against common fires.
8. This fire-place cures most smoaky chimneys, and thereby preserves
both the eyes and furniture.
9. It prevents the fouling of chimneys; much of the lint and dust
that contributes to foul a chimney being, by the low arch, obliged to
pass through the flame, where it is consumed. Then, less wood being
burnt, there is less smoke made. Again, the shutter, or trap-bellows,
soon blowing the wood into a flame, the same wood does not yield so
much smoke as if burnt in a common chimney: for as soon as flame
begins, smoke in proportion ceases.
10. And if a chimney should be foul, it is much less likely to take
fire. If it should take fire, it is easily stifled and extinguished.
11. A fire may be very speedily made in this fire-place by the help
of the shutter, or trap-bellows, as aforesaid.
12. A fire may be soon extinguished, by closing it with the shutter
before, and turning the register behind, which will stifle it, and
the brands will remain ready to rekindle.
13. The room being once warm, the warmth may be retained in it all
To Madame Brillon, of Passy 40 The Whistle.Page 19
I found the good man had thoroughly studied my Almanacs, and digested all I had dropped on these topics during the course of twenty-five years.Page 25
'" Thus Socrates put a stop to the disorderly ambition of this man; but, on an occasion quite contrary, he in the following manner exhorted Charmidas to take an employment.Page 27
All these, and many more useful arts, too many to be enumerated here, wholly depend upon the aforesaid sciences, namely, arithmetic and geometry.Page 46
One reflection more, and I will end this long, rambling letter.Page 54
_ Neither will any of you, whom I leave behind, have equal satisfaction in life, in the dark declining age which I see is already begun.Page 116
If I judge some _two_ reasons _con_ equal to some _three_ reasons _pro_, I strike out the _five_; and, thus proceeding, I find at length where the _balance_ lies; and if, after a day or two of farther consideration, nothing new that is of importance occurs on either side, I come to a determination accordingly.Page 122
It may displease you if I give you the reason; but as it may be of use to you in your future correspondences, I will hazard that for a gentleman to whom I feel myself obliged, as an American, on account of his good-will to our cause.Page 132
Here you would know and enjoy what posterity will say of Washington.Page 136
You will oblige me by a little of your literary history.Page 137
concerned in the pieces of personal abuse, so scandalously common in our newspapers, that I am afraid to lend any of them here till I have examined and laid aside such as would disgrace us, and subject us among strangers to a reflection like that used by a gentleman in a coffee-house to two quarrellers, who, after a mutually free use of the words rogue, villain, rascal scoundrel, &c.Page 143
Thus the ties I had to that country, and, indeed, to the world in general, are loosened one by one, and I shall soon have no attachment left to make me unwilling to follow.Page 156
_ "Passy, July 5, 1785.Page 167
This, however, nations seldom do, and we have had frequent instances of their spending more money in wars for acquiring or securing branches of commerce, than a hundred years' profit, or the full enjoyment of them can compensate.Page 174
I want to know whether your Philosophical Society received the second volume of our Transactions.Page 192
After the great shake, those people who escaped got on board ships in the harbour, where many continued above two months; the shakes all that time being so violent, and coming so thick, sometimes two or three in an hour, accompanied with frightful.Page 226
Why damp clothes should then occasion colds, is a curious question, the discussion of which I reserve for a future letter or some future conversation.Page 239