The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 2 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 198

inches thickness, as you have room, but
let it stand at least four inches from the true chimney-back. In
narrow chimneys this false back runs from jamb to jamb, but in large
old-fashioned chimneys, you need not make it wider than the back of
the fire-place. To begin it, you may form an arch nearly flat, of
three bricks end to end, over the hollow, to leave a passage the
breadth of the iron fire-place, and five or six inches deep, rounding
at bottom, for the smoke to turn and pass under the false back, and
so behind it up the chimney. The false back is to rise till it is
as high as the breast of the chimney, and then to close over to the
breast[50]; always observing, if there is a wooden mantle-tree, to
close above it. If there is no wood in the breast, you may arch over
and close even with the lower part of the breast. By this closing the
chimney is made tight, that no air or smoke can pass up it, without
going under the false back. Then from side to side of your hollow,
against the marks you made with chalk, raise a tight partition,
brick-on-edge, to separate the air from the smoke, bevelling away to
half an inch the brick that comes just under the air-hole, that the
air may have a free passage up into the air-box: lastly, close the
hearth over that part of the hollow that is between the false back
and the place of the bottom plate, coming about half an inch under
the plate, which piece of hollow hearth may be supported by a bit
or two of old iron-hoop; then is your chimney fitted to receive the

To set it, lay first a little bed of mortar all round the
edges of the hollow, and over the top of the partition: then lay
down your bottom plate in its place (with the rods in it) and tread
it till it lies firm. Then put a little fine mortar (made of loam
and lime, with a little hair) into its joints, and set in your back
plate, leaning it for the present against the false back: then set
in your air-box, with a little mortar in its joints; then put in the
two sides, closing them up against the air-box, with mortar in their
grooves, and fixing at the same time your register: then bring up
your back to its place, with mortar in its grooves, and that will
bind the sides together. Then put in your front plate,

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Text Comparison with Franklin's Way to Wealth; or, "Poor Richard Improved"

Page 0
Hence it is, that Poor Richard is so often quoted, and that, in the present title, he is said to be improved.
Page 1
Proprietors, W.
Page 2
We are taxed twice as much by our idleness, three times as much by our pride, and four times as much by our folly; and from these taxes the commissioners cannot ease or deliver us by allowing an abatement.
Page 3
Darton, Junr.
Page 4
" II.
Page 5
A fat kitchen makes a lean will;" and, "Many estates are spent in the getting, Since women for tea forsook spinning and knitting, And men for punch forsook hewing and splitting.
Page 6
These are not the necessaries of life; they can scarcely be called the conveniences: and yet only because they look pretty, how many want to have them?--By these, and other extravagancies, the genteel are reduced to poverty, and forced to borrow of those whom they formerly despised, but who, through industry and frugality, have maintained their standing; in which case it appears plainly, that "A ploughman on his legs is higher than a gentleman on his knees," as Poor Richard says.
Page 7
But poverty often deprives a man of all spirit and virtue.
Page 8
Those have a short Lent, who owe money to be paid at Easter.
Page 9
Reader, if thou wilt do the same, thy profit will be as great as mine.