The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 2 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 217

a free issue from the funnel, must push out of its
way or oblige the air that is over it to rise. In a time of calm or
of little wind this is done visibly, for we see the smoke that is
brought up by that air rise in a column above the chimney. But when a
violent current of air, that is, a strong wind, passes over the top
of a chimney, its particles have received so much force, which keeps
them in a horizontal direction and follow each other so rapidly,
that the rising light air has not strength sufficient to oblige them
to quit that direction and move upwards to permit its issue. Add to
this, that some of the current passing over that side of the funnel
which it first meets with, viz. at A, (Plate IX. Figure 5.) having
been compressed by the resistance of the funnel, may expand itself
over the flue, and strike the interior opposite side at B, from
whence it may be reflected downwards and from side to side in the
direction of the pricked lines c c c.

_Remedies._ In some places, particularly in Venice, where they have
not stacks of chimneys but single flues, the custom is, to open or
widen the top of the flue rounding in the true form of a funnel;
(Plate, Figure 6) which some think may prevent the effect just
mentioned, for that the wind blowing over one of the edges into the
funnel may be slanted out again on the other side by its form. I have
had no experience of this; but I have lived in a windy country, where
the contrary is practised, the tops of the flues being _narrowed_
inwards, so as to form a slit for the issue of the smoke, long as
the breadth of the funnel, and only four inches wide. This seems to
have been contrived on a supposition, that the entry of the wind
would thereby be obstructed, and perhaps it might have been imagined,
that the whole force of the rising warm air being condensed, as it
were, in the narrow opening, would thereby be strengthened, so as
to overcome the resistance of the wind. This however did not always
succeed; for when the wind was at north-east and blew fresh, the
smoke was forced down by fits into the room I commonly sat in, so
as to oblige me to shift the fire into another. The position of the
slit of this funnel was indeed north-east and south-west. Perhaps if
it had lain across the wind, the

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Text Comparison with Franklin's Way to Wealth; or, "Poor Richard Improved"

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Virtue and Innocence, a Poem 1 0 The Economy of Human Life 1 0 Old Friends in a New Dress, or Selections from Esop's Fables, in Verse, 2 parts, plates 2 0 Little Jack Horner, in Verse, plain 1s.
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The hour of the sale not being come, they were conversing on the badness of the times; and one of the company called to a plain, clean, old man, with white locks, 'Pray, Father Abraham, what think you of the times? Will not those heavy taxes quite ruin the country! How shall we be ever able to pay them? What would you advise us to?'----Father Abraham stood up, and replied, 'If you would have my advice, I will give it you in short; "for a word to the wise is enough," as Poor Richard says.
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--If we are industrious, we shall never starve; for "at the working man's house hunger looks in, but dares not enter.
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" [Illustration: Published by W.
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You call them goods; but, if you do not take care, they will prove evils to some of you.
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" And, after all, of what use is this pride of appearance, for which so much is risked, so much is suffered? It cannot promote health, nor ease pain; it makes no increase of merit in the person, it creates envy, it hastens misfortune.
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yet you are about to put yourself under that tyranny, when you run in debt for such dress! Your creditor has authority, at his pleasure, to deprive you of your liberty, by confining you in gaol for life, or by selling you for a servant, if you should not be able to pay him.
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Darton, Printers, Holborn-Hill, London.