The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 2 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 218

effect might have been different.
But on this I can give no certainty. It seems a matter proper to
be referred to experiment. Possibly a turn-cap might have been
serviceable, but it was not tried.

Chimneys have not been long in use in England. I formerly saw a
book printed in the time of queen Elizabeth, which remarked the
then modern improvements of living, and mentioned among others the
convenience of chimneys. "Our forefathers," said the author, "had
no chimneys. There was in each dwelling house only one place for a
fire, and the smoke went out through a hole in the roof; but now
there is scarce a gentleman's house in England that has not at least
one chimney in it."--When there was but one chimney, its top might
then be opened as a funnel, and perhaps, borrowing the form from the
Venetians, it was then the flue of a chimney got that name. Such is
now the growth of luxury, that in both England and France we must
have a chimney for every room, and in some houses every possessor
of a chamber, and almost every servant, will have a fire; so that
the flues being necessarily built in stacks, the opening of each as
a funnel is impracticable. This change of manners soon consumed the
firewood of England, and will soon render fuel extremely scarce
and dear in France, if the use of coals be not introduced in the
latter kingdom as it has been in the former, where it at first met
with opposition; for there is extant in the records of one of queen
Elizabeth's parliaments, a motion made by a member, reciting, "That
many dyers, brewers, smiths, and other artificers of London, had
of late taken to the use of pit-coal for their fires, instead of
wood, which filled the air with noxious vapours and smoke, very
prejudicial to the health, particularly of persons coming out of
the country; and therefore moving that a law might pass to prohibit
the use of such fuel (at least during the session of parliament) by
those artificers."--It seems it was not then commonly used in private
houses. Its supposed unwholesomeness was an objection. Luckily the
inhabitants of London have got over that objection, and now think
it rather contributes to render their air salubrious, as they have
had no general pestilential disorder since the general use of coals,
when, before it, such were frequent. Paris still burns wood at an
enormous expence continually augmenting, the inhabitants having still
that prejudice to overcome. In Germany you are happy in the use of
stoves, which save fuel

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Text Comparison with Franklin's Way to Wealth; or, "Poor Richard Improved"

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Page 1
DARTON_, And of most Booksellers in the United Kingdom.
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'It would be thought a hard government that should tax its people one-tenth part of their time to be employed in its service: but idleness taxes many of us much more; sloth, by bringing.
Page 3
--How much more than is necessary do we spend in sleep! forgetting that, "the sleeping fox catches no poultry, and that there will be sleeping enough in the grave," as Poor Richard says.
Page 4
" And again, "He that by the plow would thrive, Himself must either hold or drive.
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1, 1805.
Page 6
For, in another place, he says, "Many have been ruined by buying good pennyworths.
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"Vessels large may venture more, But little boats should keep near shore.
Page 8
When you have got your bargain, you may, perhaps, think little of payment; but, as Poor Richard says, "Creditors have better memories than debtors; creditors are a superstitious sect, great observers of set days and times.
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and T.