The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 2 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 233

to have been formed on the same
principle, and probably from the hint thereby given, though the
French experiment is not mentioned. This book being scarce, I have
translated the chapter describing the stove, viz.

"_Vulcanus Famulans, by John George Leutmann, P. D._

"_Wirtemberg, 1723._


"On a Stove, which draws downwards.

"Here follows the description of a sort of stove, which can easily
be removed and again replaced at pleasure. This drives the fire down
under itself, and gives no smoke, but however a very unwholesome

"In the figure, A is an iron vessel like a funnel, (Plate X. Figure
20.) in diameter at the top about twelve inches, at the bottom near
the grate about five inches; its height twelve inches. This is set on
the barrel C, which is ten inches diameter and two feet long, closed
at each end E E. From one end rises a pipe or flue about four inches
diameter, on which other pieces of pipe are set, which are gradually
contracted to D, where the opening is but about two inches. Those
pipes must together be at least four feet high. B is an iron grate.
F F are iron handles guarded with wood, by which the stove is to be
lifted and moved. It stands on three legs. Care must be taken to stop
well all the joints, that no smoke may leak through.

"When this stove is to be used, it must first be carried into the
kitchen and placed in the chimney near the fire. There burning wood
must be laid and left upon its grate till the barrel C is warm, and
the smoke no longer rises at A, but descends towards C. Then it is to
be carried into the room which it is to warm. When once the barrel C
is warm, fresh wood may be thrown into the vessel A as often as one
pleases, the flame descends and without smoke, which is so consumed
that only a vapour passes out at D.

"As this vapour is unwholesome, and affects the head, one may be
freed from it, by fixing in the wall of the room an inverted funnel,
such as people use to hang over lamps, through which their smoke goes
out as through a chimney. This funnel carries out all the vapour
cleverly, so that one finds no inconvenience from it, even though the
opening D be placed a span below the mouth of the said funnel G. The
neck of the funnel is better when made gradually bending, than if
turned in a right angle.

"The cause of the

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Text Comparison with Experiments and Observations on Electricity Made at Philadelphia in America

Page 1
Page 3
when you form a direct communication as above.
Page 8
Page 11
Page 12
If the phials were both charged through their hooks, the cork, when it has been attracted and repell'd by the one, will not be attracted, but equally repelled by the other.
Page 13
What is driven out at the tail of the first, serving to charge the second; what is driven out of the second charging the third; and so on.
Page 15
Page 16
Gild likewise the inner edge of the back of the frame all round except the top part, and form a communication between that gilding and the gilding behind the glass: then put in the board, and that side is finished.
Page 19
Page 24
If the air was not much loaded, it only falls in dews on the mountain tops and sides, forms springs, and descends to the vales in rivulets, which united make larger streams and rivers.
Page 25
--The concussion or jerk given to the air, contributes also to shake down the water, not only from those two clouds but from others near them.
Page 29
If any one should.
Page 30
Page 34
But points have a property, by which they _draw on_ as well as _throw off_ the electrical fluid, at greater distances than blunt bodies can.
Page 35
Thus in the present case, to know this power of points, may possibly be of some use to mankind, though we should never be able to explain it.
Page 39
Page 43
But when this is done, there is no more in the glass, nor less than before, just as much having left it on one side as it received on the other.
Page 46
[12] If the tube be exhausted of air, a non electric lining in contact with the wire is not necessary; for _in vacuo_, the electrical fire will fly freely from the inner surface, without a non-electric conductor: but air resists its motion; for being itself an electric _per se_, it does not attract it, having already its quantity.
Page 51
_By candle-light_ etc.
Page 54
[9] See s 10 of _Farther Experiments_, &c.