The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 2 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 234

draft downwards in the stove is the pressure of the
outward air, which, falling into the vessel A in a column of twelve
inches diameter, finds only a resisting passage at the grate B, of
five inches, and one at D, of two inches, which are much too weak
to drive it back again; besides, A stands much higher than B, and
so the pressure on it is greater and more forcible, and beats down
the frame to that part where it finds the least resistance. Carrying
the machine first to the kitchen fire for preparation, is on this
account, that in the beginning the fire and smoke naturally ascend,
till the air in the close barrel C is made thinner by the warmth.
When that vessel is heated, the air in it is rarefied, and then all
the smoke and fire descends under it.

"The wood should be thoroughly dry, and cut into pieces five or six
inches long, to fit it for being thrown into the funnel A." Thus far
the German book.

It appears to me, by Mr. Leutmann's explanation of the operation of
this machine, that he did not understand the principles of it, whence
I conclude he was not the inventor of it; and by the description of
it, wherein the opening at A is made so large, and the pipe E, D,
so short, I am persuaded he never made nor saw the experiment, for
the first ought to be much smaller and the last much higher, or it
hardly will succeed. The carrying it in the kitchen, too, every time
the fire should happen to be out, must be so troublesome, that it is
not likely ever to have been in practice, and probably has never been
shown but as a philosophical experiment. The funnel for conveying
the vapour out of the room would besides have been uncertain in its
operation, as a wind blowing against its mouth would drive the vapour

The stove I am about to describe was also formed on the idea given by
the French experiment, and completely carried into execution before
I had any knowledge of the German invention; which I wonder should
remain so many years in a country, where men are so ingenious in the
management of fire, without receiving long since the improvements I
have given it.

_Description of the Parts._

A, the bottom plate which lies flat upon the hearth, with its
partitions, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, (Plate X. Figure 2.) that are cast with
it, and a groove Z Z, in which are to slide, the bottom

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Text Comparison with Memoirs of Benjamin Franklin; Written by Himself. [Vol. 2 of 2] With his Most Interesting Essays, Letters, and Miscellaneous Writings; Familiar, Moral, Political, Economical, and Philosophical, Selected with Care from All His Published Productions, and Comprising Whatever Is Most Entertaining and Valuable to the General Reader

Page 2
42 On Luxury, Idleness, and Industry 45 On Truth and Falsehood 50 Necessary Hints to those that would be Rich 53 The Way to make Money plenty in every Man's Pocket 54 The Handsome and Deformed Leg 55 On Human Vanity 58 On Smuggling, and its various Species 62 Remarks concerning the Savages of North America 66 On Freedom of Speech and the Press 71 On the Price of Corn and the Management of the Poor 82 Singular Custom among the Americans, entitled Whitewashing .
Page 4
114 To the same 115 To the same 116 To Miss Stevenson 119 To Lord Kames 120 To the same 121 To the same 128 To John Alleyne .
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The world was much more enlightened in those ages, and the air much warmer.
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They did so, and, to their surprise, found plants they had never seen before, but which, from that ancient time, have been constantly cultivated among us, to our great advantage.
Page 81
" Really! is it then impossible to make an unjust law? and if the law itself be unjust, may it not be the very "instrument" which ought "to raise the author's and everybody's highest indignation?" I see in the last newspapers from London that a woman is capitally convicted at the Old Bailey for privately stealing out of a shop some gauze, value fourteen shillings and threepence.
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This is a copy of Dr.
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The truth is, they were planted at the expense of private adventurers, who went over there to settle, with leave of the king, given by charter.
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Treat your wife always with respect; it will procure respect to you, not only from her, but from all that observe it.
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Tell our dear good friend, Dr.
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The American army was then employed in blocking up General Howe in Boston; and it was during this visit that General Washington communicated the following memorable anecdote to Dr.
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"I must soon quit the scene, but you may live to see our country flourish, as it will amazingly and rapidly after the war is over.
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"Spring is coming on, when travelling will be delightful.
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When we launch our little fleet of barks into the ocean, bound to different ports, we hope for each a prosperous voyage; but contrary winds, hidden shoals, storms, and enemies, come in for a share in the disposition of events; and though these occasion a mixture of disappointment, yet, considering the risk where we can make no ensurance, we should think ourselves happy if some return with success.
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_ "Philadelphia, June 3, 1789.
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And may not the progress of such wave, and the disorders it occasions among the solids of the shell, account for the rumbling sound being first heard at a distance, augmenting as it approaches, and gradually dying away as it proceeds? A circumstance observed by the inhabitants of South America, in their last great earthquake, that noise coming from a place some degrees north of Lima, and being traced by inquiry quite down to Buenos Ayres, proceeded regularly from north to south at the rate of ____ leagues per minute, as I was informed by a very ingenious Peruvian whom I met with at Paris.
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obstruction in the pores or passages through which it used to ascend to the surface, becomes, by such means, preternaturally assembled in a greater quantity than usual into one place, and therefore causeth a great rarefaction and intumescence of the water of the abyss, putting it into great commotions and disorders, and at the same time making the like effort on the earth, which, being expanded upon the face of the abyss, occasions that agitation and concussion we call an earthquake.
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Take this fluid from melted lead or from water, the parts cohere again; the first grows solid, the latter becomes ice: and this is sooner done by the means of good conductors.
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Nicholas Gimcrack, therefore, who neglected the care of his family to pursue butterflies, was a just object of ridicule, and we must give him up as fair game to the satirist.
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