The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 2 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

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press the roof
of a house _inwards_, or force _in_ the tiles, shingles, or thatch,
force a boat down into the water, or a piece of timber into the
earth, than that it would lift them up, and carry them away.

It has so happened, that I have not met with any accounts of spouts,
that certainly descended; I suspect they are not frequent. Please to
communicate those you mention. The apparent dropping of a pipe from
the clouds towards the earth or sea, I will endeavour to explain

The augmentation of the cloud, which, as I am informed, is generally,
if not always the case, during a spout, seems to shew an ascent,
rather than a descent of the matter of which such cloud is composed;
for a descending spout, one would expect, should diminish a cloud.
I own, however, that cold air descending, may, by condensing the
vapours in a lower region, form and increase clouds; which, I think,
is generally the case in our common thunder-gusts, and, therefore, do
not lay great stress on this argument.

Whirlwinds and spouts, are not always, though most commonly, in
the day time. The terrible whirlwind which damaged a great part of
Rome, June 11, 1749, happened in the night of that day. The same was
supposed to have been first a spout, for it is said to be beyond
doubt, that it gathered in the neighbouring sea, as it could be
tracked from Ostia to Rome. I find this in Pere Boschovich's account
of it, as abridged in the Monthly Review for December 1750. In that
account, the whirlwind is said to have appeared as a very black,
long, and lofty cloud, discoverable, notwithstanding the darkness of
the night, by its continually lightning or emitting flashes on all
sides, pushing along with a surprising swiftness, and within three
or four feet of the ground. Its general effects on houses, were
stripping off the roofs, blowing away chimneys, breaking doors and
windows, _forcing up the floors, and unpaving the rooms_ (some of
these effects seem to agree well with a supposed vacuum in the centre
of the whirlwind) and the very rafters of the houses were broken and
dispersed, and even hurled against houses at a considerable distance,

It seems, by an expression of Pere Boschovich's, as if the wind blew
from all sides towards the whirlwind; for, having carefully observed
its effects, he concludes of all whirlwinds, "that their motion is
circular, and their action attractive."

He observes, on a number of histories of whirlwinds, &c. "that a
common effect of them is, to carry up into the

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Text Comparison with The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 2 [of 3]

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1 On water-spouts 11 The same subject continued 13 Water-spouts and whirlwinds compared 19 Description of a water-spout at Antigua 34 Shooting stars 36 Water-spouts and whirlwinds 37 Observations on the meteorological paper; by a gentleman in Connecticut 45 Observations in answer to the foregoing,.
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by Fahrenheit's thermometer; with other remarks made on board the Reprisal, Capt.
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For the apparent wind must be.
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This may be several ways: by the union of numbers in their course, so that what was at first only descending mist, becomes a shower; or by each particle, in its descent through air that contains a great quantity of dissolved water, striking against, attaching to itself, and carrying down with it such particles of that dissolved water, as happen to be in its way; or attracting to itself such as do not lie directly in its course by its different state with regard either to common or electric fire; or by all these causes united.
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It seems as if a mutual repulsion between its particles took place as soon as it touched the water, and a repulsion so strong as to act on other bodies swimming on the surface, as straw, leaves, chips, &c.
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On board the Pennsylvania Packet, Capt.
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induced me to omit the practice.
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Either put an intervening skreen from the wall round great part of the fire-place; or, which is perhaps preferable, shift the hinges of your door, so as it may open the other way, and when open throw the air along the other wall.
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Helena, islands on whose rocks the waves are dashed into millions of particles, which fill the air with damp, but produce no diseases, the moisture being pure, unmixed with the poisonous vapours arising from putrid marshes and stagnant pools, in which many insects die and corrupt the water.
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"When this stove is to be used, it must first be carried into the kitchen and placed in the chimney near the fire.
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It is partly to make out a letter, and partly in hope, that, by turning your attention to the point, some methods of greater security in our future building may be thought of and promoted by you, whose judgment I know has deservedly great weight with our fellow-citizens.
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(_See Plate_ XII.
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| | present letters thus, _uh_; a short,| | | | | and not very strong _aspiration_.
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America is chiefly occupied by Indians, who subsist mostly by hunting.
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_ I have somewhere read, that in China an account is yearly taken of the number of people, and the quantities of provision produced.
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Also, the merchant's wages are much higher.
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_Leather_ globe, proposed, instead of glass, for electrical experiments, i.
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'ran acros' replaced by 'ran across'.