The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 2 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 297

lands, till
the island became full of English. And, were the English now driven
into Wales by some foreign nation, there would, in a few years, be no
more Englishmen in Britain, than there are now people in Wales. 3.
Loss of trade. Manufactures, exported, draw subsistence from foreign
countries for numbers, who are thereby enabled to marry and raise
families. If the nation be deprived of any branch of trade, and no
new employment is found for the people occupied in that branch, it
will soon be deprived of so many people. 4. Loss of food. Suppose
a nation has a fishery, which not only employs great numbers, but
makes the food and subsistence of the people cheaper: if another
nation becomes master of the seas, and prevents the fishery, the
people will diminish in proportion as the loss of employ and dearness
of provision makes it more difficult to subsist a family. 5. Bad
government and insecure property. People not only leave such a
country, and, settling abroad, incorporate with other nations, lose
their native language, and become foreigners; but the industry of
those that remain being discouraged, the quantity of subsistence
in the country is lessened, and the support of a family becomes
more difficult. So heavy taxes tend to diminish a people. 6. The
introduction of slaves. The negroes, brought into the English sugar
islands, have greatly diminished the whites there; the poor are by
this means deprived of employment, while a few families acquire vast
estates, which they spend on foreign luxuries; and, educating their
children in the habit of those luxuries, the same income is needed
for the support of one, that might have maintained one hundred. The
whites, who have slaves, not labouring; are enfeebled, and therefore
not so generally prolific; the slaves being worked too hard, and
ill fed, their constitutions are broken, and the deaths among them
are more than the births; so that a continual supply is needed from
Africa. The northern colonies, having few slaves, increase in whites.
Slaves also pejorate the families that use them; the white children
become proud, disgusted with labour, and, being educated in idleness,
are rendered unfit to get a living by industry.

14. Hence the prince, that acquires new territory, if he finds it
vacant, or removes the natives to give his own people room;--the
legislator, that makes effectual laws for promoting of trade,
increasing employment, improving land by more or better tillage,
providing more food by fisheries, securing property, &c.--and the man
that invents new trades, arts or manufactures, or new improvements in
husbandry, may be properly called _fathers of their nation_,

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Text Comparison with The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 1 [of 3]

Page 3
170 Observations on the Leyden bottle, with experiments proving the different electrical state of its different surfaces.
Page 43
only occasionally to my vegetable plan.
Page 72
_ It has since risen, during the last war, to 350,000_l.
Page 92
Page 108
was elected by the legislature of Pennsylvania a delegate to congress.
Page 121
_Philadelphia, July 11, 1747.
Page 125
We rub our tubes with buckskin, and observe always to keep the same side to the tube, and never to sully the tube by handling; thus they work readily and easily, without the least fatigue, especially if kept in tight pasteboard cases, lined with flannel, and sitting close to the tube[23].
Page 126
Page 127
of the latter is accumulated _on its surface_, and forms an electrical atmosphere round it of considerable extent; but the electrical fire is crowded _into the substance_ of the former, the glass confining it[25].
Page 137
On the principle, in _Sec.
Page 176
I have five bottles that contain eight or nine gallons each, two of which charged are sufficient for those purposes: but I can charge and discharge them altogether.
Page 195
former papers relating to _positive_ and _negative_ electricity, with such other relative ones as shall occur to them, that it may be certainly known whether the electricity communicated by a glass globe, be _really positive_.
Page 217
The remarkable effect of lightning on iron, lately discovered, in giving it the magnetic virtue, and the same effect produced on small needles by the electrical fire, is a further and convincing proof that they are both the same element; but, which is very unaccountable, Mr.
Page 227
Read at the Royal Society, Dec.
Page 249
According to the best information I can now get, he had fixed to the outside of his chimney a large iron rod, several feet in length, reaching above the chimney; and to the top of this rod the points were fixed.
Page 263
Bride's Steeple.
Page 271
Turning the _blunt end of a wire_ uppermost (which represents the unpointed bar) it appears that the same good effect is not from that to be expected.
Page 284
Hence it is, that some animals killed in this manner will keep longer than others.
Page 303
issuing of money, 25.
Page 345
These are valid references; the book printer inserted pages 543*-556* between pages 542 and 543 in Vol iii.