The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 2 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 75

canal at
first, rather than a river, to throw out of consideration the effects
produced by the streams of fresh water from the land, the inequality
in breadth, and the crookedness of courses.

[Illustration: (showing tidal wave effects)]

Let A, C, be the head of the canal; C, D, the bottom of it; D, F,
the open mouth of it next the sea. Let the strait pricked line, B,
G, represent low water mark the whole length of the canal, A, F,
high water mark:--Now if a person standing at E, and observing at
the time of high water there, that the canal is quite full at that
place up to the line E, should conclude that the canal is equally
full to the same height from end to end, and therefore there was as
much more water come into the canal since it was down at low water
mark, as would be included in the oblong space A, B, G, F, he would
be greatly mistaken. For the tide is _a wave_, and the top of the
wave, which makes high water, as well as every other lower part, is
progressive; and it is high water successively, but not at the same
time, in all the several points between G, F, and A, B.--And in such
a length as I have mentioned it is low water at F, G, and also at A,
B, at or near the same time with its being high water at E; so that
the surface of the water in the canal, during that situation, is
properly represented by the curve pricked line B, E, G. And on the
other hand, when it is low water at E, H, it is high water both at F,
G, and at A, B, at or near the same time: and the surface would then
be described by the inverted curve line, A, H, F.

In this view of the case, you will easily see, that there must be
very little more water in the canal at what we call high water, than
there is at low water, those terms not relating to the whole canal at
the same time, but successively to its parts. And if you suppose the
canal six times as long, the case would not vary as to the quantity
of water at different times of the tide; there would only be six
waves in the canal at the same time, instead of one, and the hollows
in the water would be equal to the hills.

That this is not mere theory, but conformable to fact,

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Text Comparison with The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin

Page 19
It was not fair in me to take this advantage, and this I therefore reckon one of the first errata of my life; but the unfairness of it weighed little with me, when under the impressions of resentment for the blows his passion too often urged him to bestow upon me, though he was otherwise not an ill-natur'd man: perhaps I was too saucy and provoking.
Page 29
My father, tho' he did not approve Sir William's proposition, was yet pleas'd that I had been able to obtain so advantageous a character from a person of such note where I had resided, and that I had been so industrious and careful as to equip myself so handsomely in so short a time; therefore, seeing no prospect of an accommodation between my brother and me, he gave his consent to my returning again to Philadelphia, advis'd me to behave respectfully to the people there, endeavor to obtain the general esteem, and avoid lampooning and libeling, to which he thought I had too much inclination; telling me, that by steady industry and a prudent parsimony I might save enough by the time I was one-and-twenty to set me up; and that, if I came near the matter, he would help me out with the rest.
Page 32
You shall repay me when you are able; I am resolv'd to have a good printer here, and I am sure you must succeed.
Page 47
He added that, as soon as I should be acquainted with mercantile business, he would promote me by sending me with a cargo of flour and bread, etc.
Page 49
I respected and lov'd him, and we might have gone on together very happy; but, in the beginning of February, 1726-7, when I had just pass'd my twenty-first year, we both were taken ill.
Page 52
I gave an inventory to the father, who carry'd it to a merchant; the things were sent for, the secret was to be kept till they should arrive, and in the mean time I was to get work, if I could, at the other printing-house.
Page 75
I had been religiously educated as a Presbyterian; and tho' some of the dogmas of that persuasion, such as the eternal decrees of God, election, reprobation, etc.
Page 82
Page 86
Page 95
I was one of those who were against any addition to our number, but, instead of it, made in writing a proposal, that every member separately should endeavor to form a subordinate club, with the same rules respecting queries, etc.
Page 100
Towards the conclusion of the discourse, however, he felt a strong desire to give, and apply'd to a neighbour, who stood near him, to borrow some money for the purpose.
Page 102
Most of them did well, being enabled at the end of our term, six years, to purchase the types of me and go on working for themselves, by which means several families were raised.
Page 105
It had been propos'd that we should encourage the scheme for building a battery by laying out the present stock, then about sixty pounds, in tickets of the lottery.
Page 120
being cover'd with straw, will retain the mud thrown into them, and permit the water to drain from it, whereby it will become much lighter, water making the greatest part of its weight; these bodies of carts to be plac'd at convenient distances, and the mud brought to them in wheel-barrows; they remaining where plac'd till the mud is drain'd, and then horses brought to draw them away.
Page 127
Each waggon and team, and every saddle or pack horse, is to be valued by indifferent persons chosen between me and the owner; and in case of the loss of any waggon, team, or other horse in the service, the price according.
Page 133
This whole transaction gave us Americans the first suspicion that our exalted ideas of the prowess of British regulars had not been well founded.
Page 143
And, after my return from the frontier, he would have had me undertake the conduct of such an expedition with provincial troops, for the reduction of Fort Duquesne, Dunbar and his men being otherwise employed; and he proposed to commission me as general.
Page 152
down their price in favor of the contractors, in whose profits, it was said, perhaps from suspicion only, he had a share.
Page 153
As to my ballance, I am not paid it to this day, of which more hereafter.
Page 154
Besides, it scarce ever happens that a ship is form'd, fitted for the sea, and sail'd by the same person.