The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 3 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

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...TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

This is Volume 3 of a 3-volume set. The other two volumes...

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...upon the colonies, without their
consent ...

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... governors of that province, and their several assemblies. Founded
on authentic documents ...

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... 239

Letter from Governor Pownall to Dr. Franklin, concerning an equal
communication...

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... ...

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... 355

...

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... 391

Information to those...

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... ...

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... ...

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...Four letters to Mr. Whetley ...

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..._of_
UNION _for the_ COLONIES _was formed_;--II. _Reasons against
partial Unions_;--III. _And the...

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...manner of forming and establishing this union was the next point.
When it was considered, that...

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...same difficulty in degree,
to bring the several unions to unite together, as now the several
colonies;...

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...mutual Defence and Security, and
for extending the British Settlements in North America, with the
Reasons and...

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...own consent, or the consent of his elected
representatives.

"That taxes to be laid and levied by...

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...of great trust and importance to the nation, it was
thought better to be filled by...

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... 4
New Jerseys ...

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... ...

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...shall be a new election of the members of the grand
council every three years; and...

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...to such call, and sent
due and timely notice to the whole._

It was thought, in establishing...

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...greater expences of travelling than residing at the place of
meeting.


ASSENT OF PRESIDENT GENERAL AND HIS...

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...uncertainty of titles, many disputes and expensive
law-suits, and hindered the settlement of the land so...

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...cannot so well be executed by two unions
as by one.


LAWS TO GOVERN THEM.

_That they make...

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...advantage in turn to the colonies
which are situated on the sea, and whose frontiers on...

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...from a majority of the colonies._

The quorum seems large, but it was thought it would...

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...appointed by governors through favour or interest. The
service here meant, is not the stated settled...

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...imprudent and lavish expence in such defences.[9]

FOOTNOTES:

[1] The reader must be informed here, that this...

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...of government, I shall quote the motives
assigned upon this occasion by the act regulating the...

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...six hundred
and forty acres make a square mile, is 128,000_l._ _first cost_ for
every 100 miles)...

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...the enemy, unassisted
not only by the mother-country, but by any of the neighbouring
provinces.--The plan, however,...

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...to think and say, as what
they ought to think: I shall therefore, as your excellency...

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...through their representatives:

That the colonies have no representatives in parliament.

That to propose taxing them by...

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...the joint expence of the body of the people in
such empire:--it would now be thought...

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...may know to be as
unnecessary as grievous, must seem hard measure to Englishmen, who
cannot conceive,...

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...to be better and
more impartially considered, and perhaps to overcome the interest
of a petty corporation,...

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...Britain had been borne by the settlers themselves? and would not
the hardship appear yet greater,...

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...or France.

The French are now making open encroachments on these territories, in
defiance of our known...

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...of the English, and would gladly encourage and
protect an infant English settlement in or near...

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...be
granted to the contributors and settlers, as his majesty in his
wisdom shall think most fit...

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...of this colony in its infancy, a small fort might
be erected and for some time...

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...the
new country is nearly at equal distance from all the old colonies,
and could easily be...

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...country
between us and the enemy.... All mankind must know, that no body of
men, whether as...

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...of this branch." See Governor Pownall's Administration of the
Colonies. Vol. II. p. 228-231, 5th edition.

The...

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...framing laws for their protection and the safety of the province,
according to their best discretion;...

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...to his majesty, as to the mode, measure,
and time) that it is impossible for the...

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...duty of the _proprietaries_ to pay their
proportion of a tax, for the immediate preservation of...

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...without the least satisfaction_ being made to the masters,
has not only prevented the cultivation of...

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...and hardships before-mentioned;--and endeavour to
procure satisfaction to the masters of such servants as have been
inlisted,...

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...been long
depending, and which still seems to be as far from an issue as ever.

Our...

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...you.

Probity and dignity are your characteristics.

May that seat always derive the same lustre from the...

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...as most of them, for happiness of situation,
fertility of soil, product of valuable commodities, number...

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...sake of filling the bushel: and in case the wisdom
of the age should condescend to...

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...or frame of government.

The government resumed by Mr. Penn.

The province purged from the odium of...

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...instances
declared void.

The proprietary of Pensylvania too inconsiderable here at home to be
a patron to the...

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...he had before rejected.

Another message to him concerning Indian affairs, and notifying a
present of condolence...

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...them.

They prepare and present a bill for striking 35,000_l._ in bills of
credit, and the rest...

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...against them.

A brief of the governor's sur-rejoinder.

Some general remarks.

The assembly make their appeal to the...

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...captious message.

A remark thereon.

They are re-assembled.

A hardy assertion, concerning the paper-money act passed by governor
Thomas,...

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...of the tax in question,
and upon a presumption that the proprietaries would honourably
reimburse them.

The assembly...

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...the matter of alarm communicated by
the governor; and advise such measures as might reclaim the...

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...after re-assemble by special summons.

The governor's message on that occasion.

The message of the assembly in...

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...would
expire also, they would prepare a proper bill for continuing the
embargo, &c.

The assembly's reply; in...

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...of the assembly on this occasion.

A remonstrance voted.

Conclusion; with a testimonial of commodore Sprag in...

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...the commencement of the present troubles in
America_.

13. An extract from an original letter of Mr....

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...king and country may inspire; and this by writers, whose
understanding (however they may differ from...

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...the mob must be too feeble and
impotent, armed as the government of this country at...

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...opinion, and shall presently give my reasons.

But first let me observe, that we did not...

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...even in times of full peace
between the two crowns; to the certain diminution of our...

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...as want of moderation. It has always been
the foundation of the most general treaties. The...

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...their
disputes about boundaries, as to proceed to open violence and
bloodshed.

[2. _Erecting forts in...

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...number with sufficient subsistence. When they have surprised
separately, and murdered and scalped a dozen families,...

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...the officers keep their corps full, and mind their duty. But
any troops of ours placed...

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...now
are, under the best of kings, and in the prospect of a succession
promising every felicity...

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...is likely, in any lucrative
view, to redound at all to the advantage of any person...

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...prevent the
importation of the same kind from abroad, and to bear the expence of
its own...

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...of the whole body. Where the frontier people owe and
pay obedience, there they have a...

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...and become independent; beg therefore that
the French may be suffered to remain in possession of...

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...opinion) may in its consequences be
dangerous[37]." As how? Why, plainly, (at length it comes out)...

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...reach. And if we even suppose them confined by the waters
of the Mississippi westward, and...

Page 79

...For satisfaction in this point, let
the reader compare in his mind the number and force...

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...wares, and collect orders, which they receive by almost every
mail, to a vast amount. Whatever...

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...silk; the
southern parts may produce olive-oil, raisins, currants, indigo, and
cochineal. Not to mention horses and...

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..._silk_, since
3_d._ per _lb._ is not above 1 per cent on the value, and amounts...

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...sober
and industrious out of the country. There is, in short, scarce a
single instance in history...

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...different parts of
these British islands is greatly superior to that between England and
all the West...

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...cheese and butter, or drinks his English ale, at London or
in Barbadoes? Is the clothier's,...

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...of trade, and transmitted to that board by the respective
governors; of which accounts I shall...

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...the facility of getting beaver, while the woods
were but little cleared, and there was plenty...

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...and murdering
their people; can it reasonably be supposed there is any danger of
their uniting against...

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...and Ulster were in the days of Queen Elizabeth. No body
foretels the dissolution of the...

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...(what can be a stronger proof of the security of
their possession?) And yet by a...

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...little concern. If it be, after all, thought necessary to
check the growth of our colonies,...

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...many
will choose to remove, if they can be allowed to sell their lands,
improvements, and effects:...

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...us almost the whole produce of our sugar[53], _can we, or ought
we_ to promise ourselves...

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...somewhat
to be weighed in the opposite scale. They cannot at present make war
with England, without...

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...peace.

The editor thinks it necessary to add the following further
explanations.--The above piece (which first came...

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...their own forces with them in all the late
hostilities that have been committed within his...

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...go home by the same or some different route,
as they think safest; or go to...

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...a few of the Indians. To the same or greater evils
still will every one of...

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...four thousand
from Petersburgh to Pekin. This is enough to justify Dr. Franklin's
positions in the page...

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... ...

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... ...

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...and second terms of the former were
672,668_l._ and 753,568_l._: of the latter, 697,254_l._ and 1,482,811_l._

In...

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... 56,690 6 7
1742...

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...America never would have
taken place_. Why then were the French _not left_ in Canada, at...

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...Gold and silver are therefore the fittest
for this medium, as they are an equivalent; which...

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...and eight-shilling pieces,
long before paper-money was made. But this practice of increasing
the denomination was found...

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...defray the expedition
against Louisbourg; and, during the last war in Virginia and North
Carolina, when great...

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...of
their fish, kept them supplied with a currency; till the late war
furnished them and all...

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...the
drawer is indeed a circumstance that cannot attend the colony bills;
for the reasons just above-mentioned;...

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...to deprive a country of
even the quantity of currency that should be retained as a...

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...be considered as a depreciation of the values of
_whatever remains_ in the country; then the...

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...silver having gone hand in hand with the
paper at the rate above-mentioned; and therefore it...

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...to a worse; for the bills were
in a short time gathered up and hoarded; it...

Page 114

...opposition to paper-money, as appears by the
report. Dr. Franklin being asked to draw up an...

Page 115

...common courts; and required, that the trial should be
by a court-martial, composed of officers of...

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...disclose
or _discover the vote or opinion_ of any particular member of the
court-martial. So help me...

Page 117

...defence, directed, that "the better to
facilitate the important service, the commissions should be given
to such...

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...preface, a number of aspersions were thrown on
our assemblies, and their proceedings grossly misrepresented, it
was...

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...up to the governor for his
assent, had lain long in his hands, without any answer....

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...(says he)
for this instance of _your regard_; which I am the more pleased with,
as it...

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...be able to obtain
them from the goodness of our sovereign, without going to market
for them...

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...bills in hand, took the
matter into immediate consideration, and voted him five hundred
pounds, for which...

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...wickedness of governor Denny in passing,
and of the assembly in prevailing with him to pass,...

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...endeavoured to
enforce here, could not be supported there[61], they bent their whole
strength against the act...

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...was, "That all lands, _not granted_ by
the proprietaries _within boroughs and towns_, be deemed located
uncultivated...

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...and thought they had done it in the act. The words of the
clause being, "That...

Page 127

...and sums
of money whatsoever, &c. at the rates ascertained in the act of
parliament made in...

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...those of the people, and who must therefore
reap at least equal advantages from those bills...

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...the end that the strictest inquiry might be made. _Their report_
was as follows: "We, the...

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...to the honour of the family, and
of his own discretion. But he was pleased to...

Page 131

...composed of staunch friends of the family, and
chosen for their attachment to it, it was...

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...request; they were signed by a very
great[67] number of the most substantial inhabitants; and not...

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...of this measure, and during the fourteen days the house
sat deliberating on it after they...

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...done. And this is merely what the assembly now desire to have
done. Surely he that...

Page 135

...then protect the
sheep, if they can but persuade them to give up their dogs? Yes;...

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...they have adorned him: in time they may
serve to console him, by balancing the calumny...

Page 137

...who can secure him the affections of the people? The virtue
and merit of his ancestors...

Page 138

...to their prejudice, and the proprietaries benefit, can you
perceive no difference? When the direct and...

Page 139

...him compare
that constitution with the present. The power of _appointing public
officers_ by the representatives of...

Page 140

...word _often_ seems a little
unluckily chosen: the flame that is often put out, must be...

Page 141

...petition proceeds to say, "that where such disturbances
have happened, they have been _speedily quieted_." By...

Page 142

...passed and presented to him a militia bill, which he
refused, unless powers were thereby given...

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...mentioned in the preface, which I find I omitted
to take notice of as I came...

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...spirited line in the Farmer's Letters and other pieces, which
procured him considerable reputation. The congress...

Page 145

...sign it.
The truth is, that his number of souls is vastly exaggerated. The
dwelling-houses in the...

Page 146

...of; and seems
an affected imitation of the lords in parliament, which can by no
means become...

Page 147

...done, that they should
think unfavourably of me? It cannot be my constantly and uniformly
promoting the...

Page 148

...where you were born,
and are best known) have been obliged to accept a seat from...

Page 149

...his assent to the
taxation of their estates; in the _same manner_ that the estates
of other...

Page 150

...other _concessions_ to be made for the sake of
a reconciliation, must necessarily be. They hoped...

Page 151

...in imitation of your master,
which is indeed very commendable. And if the accommodation here
should fail,...

Page 152

...of placing it in the stocks, which
then were low, where it might on a peace...

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...that besides the prejudice to
my private affairs by my absence, a _thousand pounds_ more would...

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... ISAAC PEARSON.
JOSEPH FOX,

February 19, 1763.

"The house...

Page 155

...neighbours, with less trouble,
and to greater advantage; as the goods they want for them, are...

Page 156

...Trade is a
voluntary thing between buyer and seller; in every article of which,
each exercises his...

Page 157

...the value of personal property;[73] that they would think the
disproportion monstrous between the liberty of...

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...make annual
visitations among the Indians, to see to justice, &c. and their
proceedings were to be...

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... LA BAY.

Meynomeneys ...

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... 240
At the upper town, on Muskingum ...

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...of requisition been continued (a method that
left the king's subjects in those remote countries the...

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...still so fixed and
rooted in the Americans, that it has been supposed, not a single
man...

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...in due
obedience to an act of parliament, which, according to their ideas of
their rights, they...

Page 164

...no longer than their
government continues, and purpose to leave no family behind them,
they are apt...

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...left, but by starving them out.

I do not suppose these reasonings of theirs will appear...

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...Iron
is to be found every where in America, and beaver are the natural
produce of that...

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...that of their own, by laws:
they can make laws to discourage or prohibit the importation...

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...union, and to sever us for ever."

These are the wild ravings of the, at present,...

Page 169

...became an
enumerated commodity, and therefore could be carried to Great Britain
only.

"The enumeration was obtained, (says...

Page 170

...appear to
have been original in conceiving _stamps_ as a proper subject for his
new tax. See...

Page 171

...Britain, and the colonies only reaped
the benefit, without hitherto sharing the burthen, and were therefore
now...

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...if our money is to be given
by others, without asking our consent? And if the...

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...will therefore only add, that I am as
desirous of his acquaintance and intimacy, as he...

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...can be
kept from gaining an advantage, _Britain will gain it_:--

If the colonies are fitter for...

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...taxes, of course, continued longer by a new law.

_Q._ Are not all the people very...

Page 176

...back the money to the old colonies?

_A._ I think not. I believe very little would...

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...the coast in America.

_Q._ Do you think it right that America should be protected by...

Page 178

...consumers,
who are chiefly landholders, finally pay the greatest part, if not
the whole.

_Q._ What was the...

Page 179

...lately laid on their
trade, by which the bringing of foreign gold and silver into [the]
colonies...

Page 180

...make any such act, till now that you have attempted to
tax us: _that_ has occasioned...

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...then be for the good of
the people of the colony, as well as necessary to...

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...among
them; and must they not in the mean while suffer greatly?

_A._ I think not. They...

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...in Ireland,
unless on some very extraordinary occasion.

_Q._ But who are to be the judges of...

Page 184

...military force carry the stamp act
into execution?

_A._ I do not see how a military force...

Page 185

...means they have of recommending themselves to their sovereign;
and they think it extremely hard and...

Page 186

...on the
produce of their lands _exported_? And would they not then object to
such a duty?

_A._...

Page 187

...the _principal_
distributors, who were to have had a considerable profit on the
whole, have not thought...

Page 188

...know, that in 1752
ten thousand hogsheads of flax-seed, each containing seven bushels,
were exported from Philadelphia...

Page 189

...opposition. The ring-leaders of riots, they think ought to be
punished; they would punish them themselves,...

Page 190

...of the
burthen, did exceed their proportion; for if they had done less, or
had only equalled...

Page 191

...re-take that fort (which
was looked on here as another incroachment on the king's territory)
and to...

Page 192

...themselves.

_Q._ Do you say there were no more than three hundred regular troops
employed in the...

Page 193

...if I liked the occasion.

_Q._ When money has been raised in the colonies, upon requisitions,
has...

Page 194

...as were suitable to their circumstances and abilities,
whenever called upon for that purpose, in the...

Page 195

...to be taxed, who ought to make a part of that common
consent.

_Q._ Are there any...

Page 196

...decline
it?

_A._ Yes, I think they will; especially if, at the same time, the
trade is opened...

Page 197

...and last resolution setting
forth "that it was their opinion that the house be moved, that...

Page 198

...1766 will not then suit 1779. B. V.

[87] In the year 1733--"for the welfare and...

Page 199

...collect a sufficient quantity; and they had zeal
and address enough to effect their purpose, upon...

Page 200

...I wish
all prosperity to both: but I have talked, and written so much and
so long...

Page 201

...convey to me.

1st. Will not a repeal of all the duties (that on tea excepted,...

Page 202

...express purpose of raising a revenue
in America, glass, red-lead, white-lead, painters' colours,
paper, and _tea_ (which...

Page 203

...in the dispute.
At present the colonies consent and submit to it, for the regulations
of general...

Page 204

...before the passing of the late stamp act?"

_A._ I think so.

4th. "Your reasons for that...

Page 205

...sides of the Atlantic have different
and opposite ideas of "justice and propriety," no one "method"...

Page 206

...offensive duties in part will
answer no end to this country; the commerce will remain obstructed,
and...

Page 207

...them, and which
will tend farther to diminish their affections to this country.
Possibly too, some of...

Page 208

...value myself." Speeches in 1774 and 1775. B. V.

[102] This was afterwards attempted by the...

Page 209

...statutes, _regulating_ or limiting the general
powers and _authority of the crown_, and the exercise of...

Page 210

...as British subjects: would such statute, as of
right, extend to and operate within said colonies...

Page 211

...of justice_,
established within the precincts of said jurisdictions, have, as
they ought of right to have,...

Page 212

...of all forts and places of strength, is, and by the laws of
England ever was,...

Page 213

...unless in
time of war and cases of extreme exigency.--In 1756, when the Speaker
went up to...

Page 214

...by the crown, Oct. 22, 1700.

[109] 16th Car. I. c. 10.

[110] The case of the...

Page 215

...the
realm, under that criminal jurisdiction to which alone by their
legal resiancy and allegiance they were...

Page 216

...the empire. We only assert, that having
parliaments of our own, and not having representatives in...

Page 217

...have made and issued this present edict,
viz.

"Whereas it is well known to all the world,...

Page 218

...erected plating-forges, slitting-mills, and steel-furnaces, for
the more convenient manufacturing of the same, thereby endangering
a diminution...

Page 219

...thereof, by manufacturing the same into
hats, to the prejudice of our domestic manufacture: we do...

Page 220

...pleasure.

"Given at Potsdam, this twenty-fifth day of the month of August,
one...

Page 221

...was English; whence their preference of
English modes and manufactures; their submission to restraints on
the importation...

Page 222

...and French, took this opportunity, thus offered them by
our imprudence, and began to smuggle their...

Page 223

...easily be
foreseen, can hardly be avoided.

FOOTNOTES:

[118] "Boston printed: London reprinted, and sold by J. Wilkie,...

Page 224

...year 1772.
B. V.




_Account of Governor Hutchinson's Letters[126]._

TO THE CLERK OF THE...

Page 225

...petition before your
majesty.

Nothing but the sense of duty we owe to our sovereign, and the
obligation...

Page 226

...majesty, or having their desired effect. And finally, that
the said Thomas Hutchinson and Andrew Oliver...

Page 227

...lords, we shall not take advantage of any
imperfection in the proof. We admit that the...

Page 228

...produce those measures. Their tendency was to
incense the mother-country against her colonies, and, by the...

Page 229

...your majesty, that the petition is
founded upon resolutions formed on false and erroneous allegations;
and is...

Page 230

...corrupt means, for
the most malignant of purposes; unless he stole them, from the person
who stole...

Page 231

...should be prevented procuring _more_ useful intelligence from
the same source[135]. Whether Mr. Wedderburn in his...

Page 232

...who, to facilitate a division, cuts his dough
half through in those places, where, when baked,...

Page 233

...so much the better. Attorneys
clerks and Newgate solicitors will do for chief justices, especially
if they...

Page 234

...to pay taxes at home, their accumulating, in the
price of their commodities, most of those...

Page 235

...go any farther, pass another solemn
declaratory act, "that king, lords, and commons had, have, and...

Page 236

...satisfaction, you are to
apprehend, that such governors and judges may be thereby influenced
to treat the...

Page 237

...Redress no grievance, lest they should be
encouraged to demand the redress of some other grievance....

Page 238

...free him from the controul of
even your own civil governors. Let him have troops enow...

Page 239

...candor and veracity of Dr. Franklin,
I shall inform him that two contrary objections may be...

Page 240

...their
dates, July 7, and Oct. 3, 1775. _Editor._




_Proposed Vindication and Offer from Congress...

Page 241

...to take it from the
Dutch, who planted it. But to retain this colony at peace,...

Page 242

...last war,
it is true, Britain sent a fleet and army, who acted with an equal
army...

Page 243

...it as our duty to grant aids to the crown, upon requisition,
towards carrying on its...

Page 244

...the journals
of the house of commons. And we presume we may safely call on the
body...

Page 245

...to destroy their inhabitants!

Look at your hands!--they are stained with the blood of your
relations and...

Page 246

...and
that this is a harder nut to crack than they imagined.

We have not yet applied...

Page 247

...which she lost again by our taking post on
Ploughed Hill. During the same time sixty...

Page 248

...detestation. A
separation will of course be inevitable. It is a million of pities
so fair a...

Page 249

...et les colonies, &c._ being a very
concise and clear statement of facts, will be reprinted...

Page 250

...thereby, we imagine, many inconveniences may be avoided,
and your means of rendering us service, increased.

That...

Page 251

...taking up your time, may put you
to some expense, we send you for the present,...

Page 252

...and that I am to be longer deprived of
an opportunity, to assure you personally of...

Page 253

...made secretary to the commission.

Mr. Henry Strachey had been secretary to the _first_ commission,
attended with...

Page 254

...to endeavour the breaking our spirit by
the severest tyranny, and obstructing by every means in...

Page 255

...prevent. My consolation under that groundless and
malevolent treatment was, that I retained the friendship of...

Page 256

...trunk with a few
withered branches; briars and thorns were on the ground beneath it;
our ships...

Page 257

...punctuality
in discharging them.

Secondly, His industry.

Thirdly, His frugality.

Fourthly, The amount and the certainty of his income,...

Page 258

...Whereas in America,
men bred to close employment in their private affairs, attend with
ease to those...

Page 259

...three times that sum, and that therefore the
expence of his own government should be diminished....

Page 260

...and the advantages to
be expected from the loan desired; the Americans are cultivators of
land; those...

Page 261

...to the British merchants would operate to prevent that distress,
intended to be brought upon Britain,...

Page 262

...think the perfection of civility; they think the same of theirs.

Perhaps, if we could examine...

Page 263

...of education happen not to be the same with yours. We have
had some experience of...

Page 264

...it becomes difficult to know their minds,
or what impression you make upon them. The missionaries...

Page 265

...me is
mere fable, fiction, and falsehood." The Indian, offended, replied,
"My brother, it seems your friends...

Page 266

...many years since they had seen each other, whence
he then came, what occasioned the journey,...

Page 267

...in the price of beaver. Consider but a little, Conrad, and
you must be of my...

Page 268

...prayer. Constant
meditation and discourse on these subjects kept their minds gloomy
and discontented; and, like the...

Page 269

...Providence to these regions, and so favourable
the climate, that, since the three or four years...

Page 270

...only to a certain quantity of merchandize. If merchants
calculate amiss on this proportion, and import...

Page 271

...those of other
countries, nations, and ages, enjoying in the same degree the great
blessing of political...

Page 272

...who
draws a fish out of our water, draws up a piece of silver.

Let us (and...

Page 273

...the high prices given in Europe
for painting, statues, architecture, and the other works of art,
that...

Page 274

...is welcome;
and if he exercises it, and behaves well, he will be respected by all
that...

Page 275

...and where the fowls
fly about ready roasted, crying, _Come eat me!_

Who then are the kind...

Page 276

...such abilities. There small capitals laid
out in lands, which daily become more valuable by the...

Page 277

...small value as not well to bear the expence of
freight, may often be made cheaper...

Page 278

...sum nearly equal to all the expences of
freight and commission, risque or insurance, &c. necessarily...

Page 279

...in case of failure by the master in any point
of performance. This desire among the...

Page 280

...rest depends on a
man's own industry and virtue. Lands are cheap, but they must be
bought....

Page 281

...writers a theocracy) could
not be carried into execution but by the means of his ministers;
Aaron...

Page 282

...God, and objected to the privacy of the
meetings, and the preventing any of the people...

Page 283

...the establishment of
the new constitution, whereby they brought upon themselves much
inconvenience and misfortune. It farther...

Page 284

...grow, the more apt I
am to doubt my own judgment, and to pay more respect...

Page 285

...If every one of us,
in returning to our constituents, were to report the objections he
has...

Page 286

...no body's business wholly
into my own hands; and, out of zeal for the public good,...

Page 287

...acquainted with
my name and character. As I do not aim at public praise, I design
to...

Page 288

...of large capacities) is hereby discouraged
from attempting to make any figure in life: his apprehensions...

Page 289

...of all my readers; nay, I expect
they will be squibbing at the Busy-Body himself. However,...

Page 290

...even from those, who had never
known him or seen him before? It was not an...

Page 291

...into the right and only infallible method of
becoming so. That laudable ambition is too commonly...

Page 292

...1728,--9.

Nequid nimis.

In my first paper, I invited the learned and the ingenious to...

Page 293

...person
more proper to be applied to for redress in all the grievances we
suffer from want...

Page 294

...without the pleasure of calling
them my own; and they are now so used to being...

Page 295

...general way, who are unwilling to
disoblige, to visit seldom, and tarry but a little while...

Page 296

...its design is very wise and useful. For it
is understood to give a civil dismission...

Page 297

...these things, and all things of this
nature, come within my province as Censor, and I...

Page 298

...birth, that I have not only
a faculty of discovering the actions of persons, that are...

Page 299

...great gift of nature, second-sightedness, I do
continually see numbers of men, women, and children, of...

Page 300

...no account to
enter into a public dispute with any man; for I judged it would...

Page 301

...a real person, I had sufficiently
manifested my impartiality, when I said, in that very paragraph,
that...

Page 302

...why any man's picture should be published
which he never sat for? it must be, that...

Page 303

...and about this city, who will ask, on which side the writer is,
before they presume...

Page 304

...times; and was
in hopes, by my knowledge and industry, to gain enough to have
recompensed me...

Page 305

...time in every joint, through fear of certain
malicious demons, who are said to haunt and...

Page 306

...gold and silver and other valuable metals, and many have
been ruined by it. A sea-captain...

Page 307

...to an American
correspondent, who obtained a copy with great difficulty, some
depredating hand having torn from...

Page 308

...catches no poultry, and that there will be sleeping
enough in the grave," as poor Richard...

Page 309

...says. It is
true, there is much to be done, and perhaps you are weak-handed; but
stick...

Page 310

...and slain by the
enemy; all for want of a little care about a horse-shoe nail.

'III....

Page 311

...auctions, for want of minding the almanack.
Many a one, for the sake of finery on...

Page 312

...risked,
so much is suffered? It cannot promote health, nor ease pain; it
makes no increase of...

Page 313

...present, perhaps, you may think
yourselves in thriving circumstances, and that you can bear a little
extravagance...

Page 314

...do
the same, thy profit will be as great as mine.

I am, as ever,

...

Page 315

...any time, and on any occasion, raise all the money
his friends can spare. This is...

Page 316

...one hundred pounds,
provided you are a man of known prudence and honesty.

He, that spends a...

Page 317

...be happy. Banish the bleak winds of sorrow from thy mind, and
live independent. Then shalt...

Page 318

...introduced, and much admired for
its splendor; but a general enquiry was made, whether the oil...

Page 319

...learned natural philosopher, has assured me, that I
must certainly be mistaken as to the circumstance...

Page 320

...Hours of each night in which we burn
candles ...

Page 321

...before noon, consequently my discovery can be of little use: I
answer, _Nil desperandum_. I believe...

Page 322

...that my invention
was known to the ancients, and perhaps they may bring passages out of
the...

Page 323

...by early marriage, youth is
sooner formed to regular and useful life; and possibly some of...

Page 324

...in your profession, and you will be
learned. Be industrious and frugal, and you will be...

Page 325

...to me: "You
are young, and have the world before you: stoop as you go through
it,...

Page 326

...spending this Wednesday evening,
as I have done its name-sakes, in your delightful company, I sit...

Page 327

...pays, indeed_, says I, _too much for his whistle_.

If I knew a miser, who gave...

Page 328

...the two eyes of man do not more resemble, nor are
capable of being upon better...

Page 329

...they may find conveniences
and inconveniences; in whatever company, they may find persons and
conversation more or...

Page 330

...in their quarrels.

An old philosophical friend of mine was grown, from experience, very
cautious in this...

Page 331

...of chess, in which we have
often points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend...

Page 332

...the loss may be recovered,
will learn not to be too much discouraged by the present...

Page 333

...in my favour."

Seventhly, if you are a spectator while others play, observe the most
perfect silence....

Page 334

...much added to the pleasure of life.

To this end, it is, in the first place,...

Page 335

...it is done, however, in proportion, and
many putrid disorders hence have their origin. It is...

Page 336

...a degree of heat, that rarifies and renders it
lighter, when it will be pushed away,...

Page 337

...well for some time
afterwards. But this latter method is not equal to the former.

Those who...

Page 338

...nor the other.

_Gout._--The world may think as it pleases: it is always very
complaisant to itself,...

Page 339

...might be excusable, but the same taste prevails with
you in Passey, Auteuil, Montmartre, or Sanoy,...

Page 340

...is established. Behold your fair friend at Auteuil: a lady
who received from bounteous nature more...

Page 341

...exercise in
both these ways? Did you embrace it, and how often?

_Franklin._--I cannot immediately answer that...

Page 342

...apoplexy? one or other of which would have done for you long ago,
but for me.

_Franklin._--I...

Page 343

...a kind and benevolent act
of God. When they become unfit for these purposes, and afford...

Page 344

...certainly under a wise, just, and mild
government, since you have no public grievances to complain...

Page 345

...even the whole Moulin Joly,
shall come to its end, and be buried in universal ruin?"----

To...

Page 346

...design
by making several very valuable presents to it, and procuring others
from his friends: and as...

Page 347

...earnestly
to recommend to every one of you, that in case the said ship, which
is now...

Page 348

... promoting the Abolition of Slavery, and the Relief of free Negroes,
unlawfully held...

Page 349

...freemen, and will gratefully receive any donations or
subscriptions for this purpose, which may be made...

Page 350

...such a term
of years, as shall compensate their masters for the expence and
trouble of instruction...

Page 351

...Free to all pens, and prompt at ev'ry need.

The...

Page 352

...have forgotten both the name and the authority, and
as the poem has been ascribed to...

Page 353

...speak my
mind in the following paper.

War, at this time, rages over a great part of...

Page 354

...land, and
search it, saying, Go, search the land_. These Danites it seems were
at this time...

Page 355

...as the text assures us, _being glad_, perhaps
for reasons more than one. And now, what...

Page 356

...concerned take care of themselves." And others who live in
the country, when they are told...

Page 357

...of
those goods increase. If the price of the tradesman's work, and the
farmer's produce, would increase...

Page 358

...would
be cheaper for the government to open an insurance office, and pay
all losses. But is...

Page 359

...suddenly surprized,
without previous alarm, perhaps in the night! Confined to your
houses, you will have nothing...

Page 360

...with regard to them,
they might safely confide in; secure, from their own native strength,
of resuming...

Page 361

...use it, that
they might easily, by their endeavours and example, raise a military
spirit among us,...

Page 362

...means of our security neglected. It
seems as if our greatest men, our _cives nobilissimi_[201] of...

Page 363

...gave their fathers,
of joining the most _obstinate courage_ to all the other military
virtues: I mean...

Page 364

...is at the commencement of the present
volume. Dr. W. Smith, in his eulogium on our...

Page 365

...if your
bookseller has any quantity of them left, I should be glad he would
send them...

Page 366

...grandson presents his most affectionate respects.


Letter III.

_Passy, May 23, 1785._

DEAR OLD...

Page 367

... With courage undaunted may I face my last day,
...

Page 368

...the general
christenings of the city; and the years succeeding, down to 1770.
Those since that period...

Page 369

...poor to keep their
children at home, because I think there is no nurse like a...

Page 370

...think their constitution the best in the world, and
affect to despise ours. It is comfortable...

Page 371

...the two languages, which a
translator ought to do, or he cannot make so good a...

Page 372

...silver, because they will always produce
silver.

Your medallion is in good company, it is placed with...

Page 373

...to Dr. Rowley. I
am under great obligations to him, and shall write to him shortly.
It...

Page 374

...country beyond the grave.

Dr. Franklin, in the last letter I received from him, after
mentioning his...

Page 375

...the anxiety of
his diplomatic brethren on a subsequent report of his death, which,
although premature, bore...

Page 376

...while it is spunging us from
its records) must be accepted by you, sir, in that...

Page 377

...soon outgrow all their hardships." On this
account Dr. Price, who then corresponded with some of...

Page 378

...one of the letters above referred to, called the
_whig-club_, that met at the London coffee-house,...

Page 379

...his stand behind the chair opposite to me.

When the business was over, Dr. Franklin, in...

Page 380

...ii. 378.
to emigrants to America, iii. 398.
...

Page 381

... observations on the free use of, 213.
...

Page 382

... iii. 30.
thoughts on the representation of,...

Page 383

...church, 389.

_Animal_ food, Franklin's abstinence from, i. 20.
...

Page 384

... _Belly-ache_, dry, lead a cause of, ii. 220.

_Bermuda_, little thunder there, i....

Page 385

... preface to proceedings of the town meeting of, iii. 317.

_Boyle's_ lectures,...

Page 386

...seen, ii. 90.

_Cann_, silver, a singular experiment on, i. 307.

_Canoes_ of...

Page 387

...of making large paper, 349.

_Circle_, magical, account of, ii. 327, 328.

_Cities_,...

Page 388

... sensation of, how produced, 57.
only...

Page 389

... how to remedy the want of, at sea, ii. 191.

_Conductors_ of...

Page 390

... is money to a tradesman, 464.

_Criminal_ laws, reflections on,...

Page 391

... on his protest, 202.

_Discontented_ dispositions satirized, iii. 485.

_Discontents_...

Page 392

...not pass through glass, i. 243.

_Electrical_ air-thermometer described, i. 336, _et seq._
...

Page 393

...177.
kite, described, 268.
machine;...

Page 394

... _English_, effect of the ancient manners of, ii. 399.
...

Page 395

... on different coloured cloths, ii. 108, 109.
...

Page 396

...Pensylvanian, account of, ii. 225.
large and open, inconvenient, 228.
...

Page 397

...of, ii. 84.

_French_ language, its general use, ii. 353.

_Frontiers_, in America,...

Page 398

...conduct a shock, _ibid._
when fluid, or red hot, will...

Page 399

...from lightning, 375.
proposal for keeping it dry, 376.


...

Page 400

...letter from, to Franklin, iii. 365.
Franklin's answer to, 367.

...

Page 401

...not an American but a British interest, 275.

_Indians_, of North America, a number...

Page 402

...thickness, 282.

_Islands_ far from a continent have little thunder, i. 216.

_Italic_...

Page 403

...i. 179.
analysed, 192.
experiment...

Page 404

... observations on its effects on St. Bride's church, 374, 382.
...

Page 405

...conquest, 122.
probability of their establishment in America, 260.
...

Page 406

... _Meteorological_ observations, ii. 1, 45, 66.

_Methusalem_ slept always in the open air,...

Page 407

...than whites, ii. 86.

_Newbury_, effects of a stroke of lightning there, i. 310.

...

Page 408

..._Orthography_, a new mode of, ii. 359.

_Osborne_, a friend of Franklin's, i. 50,...

Page 409

...bargain, 189.

_Pensylvania_, Franklin appointed clerk to the general assembly of,
...

Page 410

...174.

_Philadelphia_, Franklin's first arrival at, i. 32.
account...

Page 411

...post-master general, Franklin appointed to the
...

Page 412

...415.

_Prussian_ edict, assuming claims over Britain, iii. 311.

_Public_ services and functions...

Page 413

... _Ridicule_, delight of the prince of Condé in, iii. 424.

_Rivers_, from the...

Page 414

...Paris, 278.

_Sea-water_, soon loses its luminous quality, i. 269.
...

Page 415

... if by too large openings in the room, 266, 268.
...

Page 416

...always be taken to sea in bottles, 175.

_Spots_ in the sun, how formed,...

Page 417

... medical effects of, _ibid._


T.

_Tariffs_, not easily settled in Indian...

Page 418

...each party, 418.
inland carriage no obstruction, to, iii. 116.
...

Page 419

...and importunate, letter on, iii. 432.

_Unintelligibleness_, a fault of modern singing, ii. 345.

...

Page 420

... supposed originally all salt, 91.
fresh,...

Page 421

...Colden, 52.
whether confined to, or generated in, clouds, 57.
...

Page 422

...p 399 Footnote [90], and is copied below for the
reader's convenience:-
...

Page 423

...234 FN [78] 'Great Britian' replaced by 'Great Britain'.
Pg 235. 'cruel idsult' replaced...