The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 3 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 10

UNION _for the_ COLONIES _was formed_;--II. _Reasons against
partial Unions_;--III. _And the Plan of Union drawn by B. F. and
unanimously agreed to by the Commissioners from New Hampshire,
Massachusett's Bay, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Maryland, and
Pensylvania[1], met in Congress at Albany, in July 1754, to
consider of the best Means of defending the King's Dominions in
America, &c. a War being then apprehended; with the Reasons or
Motives for each Article of the Plan._

B. F. was one of the four commissioners from Pensylvania[2].

I. _Reasons and Motives on which the Plan of Union was formed._

The commissioners from a number of the northern colonies being
met at Albany, and considering the difficulties that have always
attended the most necessary general measures for the common defence,
or for the annoyance of the enemy, when they were to be carried
through the several particular assemblies of all the colonies;
some assemblies being before at variance with their governors or
councils, and the several branches of the government not on terms of
doing business with each other; others taking the opportunity, when
their concurrence is wanted, to push for favourite laws, powers,
or points, that they think could not at other times be obtained,
and so creating disputes and quarrels; one assembly waiting to see
what another will do, being afraid of doing more than its share, or
desirous of doing less; or refusing to do any thing, because its
country is not at present so much exposed as others, or because
another will reap more immediate advantage; from one or other of
which causes, the assemblies of six (out of seven) colonies applied
to, had granted no assistance to Virginia, when lately invaded by
the French, though purposely convened, and the importance of the
occasion earnestly urged upon them; considering moreover, that one
principal encouragement to the French, in invading and insulting the
British American dominions, was their knowledge of our disunited
state, and of our weakness arising from such want of union; and that
from hence different colonies were, at different times, extremely
harassed, and put to great expence both of blood and treasure, who
would have remained in peace, if the enemy had had cause to fear the
drawing on themselves the resentment and power of the whole; the
said commissioners, considering also the present incroachments of
the French, and the mischievous consequences that may be expected
from them, if not opposed with our force, came to an unanimous
resolution,--_That an union of the colonies is absolutely necessary
for their preservation_.


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Text Comparison with The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 1 [of 3]

Page 1
_ _In bequeathing his papers, it was no doubt the intention of the testator, that the world should have the chance of being benefited by their publication.
Page 3
216 Opinions and conjectures, concerning the properties and effects of the electrical matter, and the means of preserving buildings, ships, &c.
Page 8
Page 18
Individuals were also in the habit of consulting him in their private affairs, and he was often chosen arbiter between contending parties.
Page 54
Hers was so amusing to me, that I was glad to pass the evening with her as often as she desired it.
Page 67
He became a very respectable merchant, and one of our provincial judges.
Page 75
As a neighbour and old acquaintance, I had kept up a friendly intimacy with the family of Miss Read.
Page 80
He made the discovery of two kinds of electricity, which he called _vitreous_ and _resinous_; the former produced by rubbing glass, the latter from excited sulphur, sealing-wax, &c.
Page 85
Page 96
Sometimes also the disputes, which subsisted between the governors and assemblies, prevented the adoption of means of defence; as we have seen was the case in Pennsylvania in 1745.
Page 104
The rioters came to Germantown.
Page 138
If now the wire of a bottle electrified in the common way, be brought near the circumference of this wheel, it will attract the nearest thimble, and so put the wheel in motion; that thimble, in passing by, receives a spark and thereby being electrified is repelled, and so driven forwards; while a second being attracted, approaches the wire, receives a spark, and is driven after the first, and so on till the wheel has gone once round, when the thimbles before electrified approaching the wire, instead of being attracted as they were at first, are repelled, and the motion presently ceases.
Page 151
_ SIR, As you first put us on electrical experiments, by sending to our Library Company a tube, with directions how to use it; and as our honorable Proprietary enabled us to carry those experiments to a greater height, by his generous present of a complete electrical apparatus; it is fit that both should know, from time to time, what progress we make.
Page 161
And though I have taken up the pieces of glass between my fingers immediately after this melting, I never could perceive the least warmth.
Page 194
And I would beg leave to recommend it to the curious in this branch of natural philosophy, to repeat with care and accurate observation the experiments I have reported in this and.
Page 218
Air takes a sensible time to diffuse itself equally, as is manifest from winds which often blow for a considerable time together from the same point, and with a velocity even in the greatest storms, not exceeding, as it is said, sixty miles an hour: but the electric fire seems propagated instantaneously, taking up no perceptible time in going very great distances.
Page 227
Read at the Royal Society, Dec.
Page 250
This nut was screwed very tight on the top of an iron rod of above half an inch diameter, or the thickness of a common curtain-rod, composed of several joints, annexed by hooks turned at the ends of each joint, and the whole fixed to the chimney of my house by iron staples.
Page 303
reflections on the scheme of imposing taxes on, without its consent, iii.
Page 328
_Mountains_, use of, in producing rain and rivers, i.