The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 3 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 102

and second terms of the former were
672,668_l._ and 753,568_l._: of the latter, 697,254_l._ and 1,482,811_l._

In ten years therefore (taking the middle years of the terms) the
North American trade is found to have _doubled_ the West Indian: in
the next sixteen years it becomes greater by _three-fold_.--With
respect to itself, the North American trade in 32 years (taking the
extremes of the terms) has quadrupled; while the West Indian trade
increased only one half; of which increase I apprehend Jamaica has
given more than one-third, chiefly in consequence of the quiet
produced by the peace with the maroon negroes.--Had the West Indian
trade continued stationary, the North American trade would have
quadrupled with respect to it, in 26 years; and this, notwithstanding
the checks given to the latter, by their non-importation agreements
and the encouragement of their own manufactures.

There has been an accession to both these trades, produced by the
cessions at the treaty of Paris, not touched upon by Dr. Franklin.
The average _annual_ export-trade, from 1770 to 1773 inclusively, to
the ceded West India islands, amounted to 258,299_l._: to the ceded
North American territory it has been 280,423_l._ See Sir Charles
Whitworth's State of Trade. B. V.]

[45] _Copy of the Report of Governor Hopkins to the Board of Trade,
on the Numbers of People in Rhode-Island._

In obedience to your lordships' commands, I have caused the within
account to be taken by officers under oath. By it there appears to be
in this colony at this time 35,939 white persons, and 4697 blacks,
chiefly negroes.

In the year 1730, by order of the then lords commissioners of trade
and plantations, an account was taken of the number of people in this
colony, and then there appeared to be 15,302 white persons, and 2633
blacks.

Again in the year 1748, by like order, an account was taken of the
number of people in this colony, by which it appears there were at
that time 29,755 white persons, and 4373 blacks.

_Colony of Rhode Island, Dec. 24, 1755._
STEPHEN HOPKINS.

[46] _An Account of the Value of the Exports from England to
Pensylvania, in one Year, taken at different Periods, viz._

In 1723 they amounted only to £. 15,992 19 4
1730 they were 48,592 7 5
1737

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Text Comparison with Experiments and Observations on Electricity Made at Philadelphia in America

Page 1
_London_.
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2.
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Then electricise the bottle, and place it on wax.
Page 5
A suspended small cork-ball will play between these books 'till the equilibrium is restored.
Page 6
The closer the contact between the shoulder of the wire, and the gold at one end of the line, and between the bottom of the bottle and the gold at the other end, the better the experiment succeeds.
Page 7
To prove that the electrical fire is _drawn off_ by the point, if you take the blade of the bodkin out of the wooden handle, and fix it in a stick of sealing wax, and then present it at the distance aforesaid, or if you bring it very near, no such effect follows; but sliding one finger along the wax till you touch the blade, and the ball flies to the shot immediately.
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_ sufficiently.
Page 15
remain in the first bottle.
Page 17
About thirty _radii_ of equal length, made of sash glass cut in narrow strips, issue horizontally from the circumference of the board, the ends most distant from the center being about four inches apart.
Page 19
A thin glass bubble, about an inch diameter, weighing only six grains, being half-filled with water, partly gilt on the outside, and furnish'd with a wire hook, gives, when electrified, as great a shock as a man can well bear.
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attract and retain it strongest, and contain the greatest quantity.
Page 31
Apply the wire of a well-charged vial, held in your hand, to one of them (A) Fig.
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16.
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Thus a pin held by the head, and the point presented to an electrified body, will draw off its atmosphere at a foot distance; where if the head were presented instead of the point, no such effect would follow.
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And this is constantly observable in these experiments, that the greater quantity of electricity on the pasteboard tube, the farther it strikes or discharges its fire, and the point likewise will draw it off at a still greater distance.
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from the stroke of lightning, by directing us to fix on the highest parts of those edifices, upright rods of iron made sharp as a needle, and gilt to prevent rusting, and from the foot of those rods a wire down the outside of the building into the ground, or down round one of the shrouds of a ship, and down her side till it reaches the water? Would not these pointed rods probably draw the electrical fire silently out of a cloud before it came nigh enough to strike, and thereby secure us from that most sudden and terrible mischief? 21.
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Take care in cutting your leaf to leave no little ragged particles on the edges, which sometimes form points where you would not have them.
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But, if the electrical fluid so easily pervades glass, how does the vial become _charged_ (as we term it) when we hold it in our hands? Would not the fire thrown in by the wire pass through to our hands, and so escape into the floor? Would not the bottle in that case be left just as we found it, uncharged, as we know a metal bottle so attempted to be charged would be? Indeed, if there be the least crack, the minutest solution of continuity in the glass, though it remains so tight that nothing else we know of will pass, yet the extremely subtile electrical fluid flies through such a crack with the greatest freedom, and such a bottle we know can never be charged: What then makes the difference between such a bottle and one that is sound, but this, that the fluid can pass through the one, and not through the other?[8] 29.
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But when this is done, there is no more in the glass, nor less than before, just as much having left it on one side as it received on the other.
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When it is charged, remove the latter communication before you take hold of the bottle, otherwise great part of the fire will escape by it.