The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 3 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 107

defray the expedition
against Louisbourg; and, during the last war in Virginia and North
Carolina, when great sums were issued to pay the colony troops, and
the war made tobacco a poorer remittance, from the higher price of
freight and insurance: in these cases, the merchants trading to those
colonies may sometimes have suffered by the sudden and unforeseen
rise of exchange. By slow and gradual rises, they seldom suffer;
the goods being sold at proportionable prices. But war is a common
calamity in all countries, and the merchants that deal with them
cannot expect to avoid a share of the losses it sometimes occasions,
by affecting public credit. It is hoped, however, that the profits of
their subsequent commerce with those colonies may have made them some
reparation. And the merchants trading to the middle colonies (New
York, New Jersey, and Pensylvania) have never suffered by any rise
of exchange; it having ever been a constant rule there, to consider
British debts as payable in Britain, and not to be discharged but
by as much paper (whatever might be the rate of exchange) as would
purchase a bill for the full sterling sum. On the contrary, the
merchants have been great gainers by the use of paper-money in
those colonies; as it enabled them to send much greater quantities
of goods, and the purchasers to pay more punctually for them. And
the people there make no complaint of any injury done them by
paper-money, with a legal tender; they are sensible of its benefits;
and petition to have it so allowed.

The 3d reason is, "_That the_ restriction _has had a_ beneficial
effect _in New England_." Particular circumstances in the New England
colonies made paper-money less necessary and less convenient to them.
They have great and valuable fisheries of whale and cod, by which
large remittances can be made. They are four distinct governments;
but having much mutual intercourse of dealings, the money of each
used to pass current in all: but the whole of this common currency
not being under one common direction, was not so easily kept within
due bounds; the prudent reserve of one colony in its emissions being
rendered useless by excess in another. The Massachusets, therefore,
were not dissatisfied with the restraint, as it restrained their
neighbours as well as themselves; and perhaps _they_ do not desire to
have the act repealed. They have not yet felt much inconvenience from
it; as they were enabled to abolish their paper-currency, by a large
sum in silver from Britain to reimburse their expences in taking
Louisbourg, which, with the gold brought from Portugal, by means

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Text Comparison with Experiments and Observations on Electricity Made at Philadelphia in America

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_ _The Editor was therefore prevailed upon to commit such extracts of letters, and other detach'd pieces as were in his hands to the press, without waiting for the ingenious author's permission so to do; and this was done with the less hesitation, as it was apprehended the author's engagements in other affairs, would scarce afford him leisure to give the publick his reflections and experiments on the subject, finish'd with that care and precision, of which the treatise before us shews he is alike studious and capable.
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electrical fire is crouded _into the substance_ of the former, the glass confining it.
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EXPERIMENTS _confirming the above_.
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Then electricise the bottle, and place it on wax.
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To prove this; take two bottles that were equally charged thro' the hooks, one in each hand; bring their hooks near each other, and no spark or shock will follow; because each hook is disposed to give fire, and neither to receive it.
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For if, on the explosion, the electrical fire came out of.
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The particles of air are said to be hard, round, separate and distant from each other; every particle strongly repelling every other particle, whereby they recede from each other, as far as common gravity will permit.
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Lightning rends some bodies.
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And this form it takes, because it is attracted by all parts of the surface of the body, tho' it cannot enter the substance already replete.
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--Those points will also discharge into the air, when the body has too great an electrical atmosphere, without bringing any non-electric near, to receive what is thrown off: For the air, though an electric _per se_, yet has always more or less water and other non-electric matters mixed with it; and these attract.
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And as in plucking the hairs from the horse's tail, a degree of strength insufficient to pull away a handful at once, could yet easily strip it hair by hair; so a blunt body presented cannot draw off a number of particles at once, but a pointed one, with no greater force, takes them away easily, particle by particle.
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Now if the fire of electricity and that of lightening be the same, as I have endeavour'd to show at large in a former paper, this pasteboard tube and these scales may represent electrified clouds.
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Before I leave this subject of lightning, I may mention some other similarities between the effects of that, and these of electricity.
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greatest quantity.
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The quantities of this fluid in each surface being equal, their repelling action on each other is equal; and therefore those of one surface cannot drive out those of the other: but, if a greater quantity is forced into one.
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