The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 3 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 112

silver having gone hand in hand with the
paper at the rate above-mentioned; and therefore it might as well
have been said, that the silver was depreciated.

There have been several different schemes for furnishing the
colonies with paper-money, that should _not_ be a legal tender, viz.

1. _To form a bank, in imitation of the bank of England, with a
sufficient stock of cash_ to pay the bills on sight.

This has been often proposed, but appears impracticable, under the
present circumstances of the colony-trade; which, as is said above,
draws all the cash to Britain, and would soon strip the bank.

2. _To raise a fund by some yearly tax, securely lodged in the bank
of England as it arises, which should_ (during the term of years
_for which the paper-bills are to be current_) _accumulate to a sum
sufficient to discharge them all at their_ original value.

This has been tried in Maryland: and the bills so funded were
issued without being made a general legal tender. The event was,
that as notes payable in time are naturally subject to a discount
proportioned to the time: so these bills fell at the beginning of
the term so low, as that twenty pounds of them became worth no more
than twelve pounds in Pensylvania, the next neighbouring province;
though both had been struck near the same time at the same nominal
value, but the latter was supported by the general legal tender.
The Maryland bills however began to rise as the term shortened, and
towards the end recovered their full value. But, as a depreciating
currency injures creditors, _this_ injured debtors; and by its
continually changing value, appears unfit for the purpose of money,
which should be as fixed as possible in its own value; because it is
to be the measure of the value of other things.

3. _To make the bills_ carry an interest _sufficient to support their
value_.

This too has been tried in some of the New England colonies; but
great inconveniencies were found to attend it. The bills, to fit them
for a currency, are made of various denominations, and some very
low, for the sake of change; there are of them from 10_l._ down to
3_d._ When they first come abroad, they pass easily, and answer the
purpose well enough for a few months; but as soon as the interest
becomes worth computing, the calculation of it on every little bill
in a sum between the dealer and his customers, in shops, warehouses
and markets, takes up much time, to the great hindrance of business.
This evil, however, soon gave place

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Text Comparison with Experiments and Observations on Electricity Made at Philadelphia in America

Page 0
COLLINSON, of _London_, F.
Page 6
The closer the contact between the shoulder of the wire, and the gold at one end of the line, and between the bottom of the bottle and the gold at the other end, the better the experiment succeeds.
Page 11
2.
Page 13
By this means a great number of bottles might be charged with the same labour, and equally high, with one alone, were it not that every bottle receives new fire, and loses its old with some reluctance, or rather gives some small resistance to the charging, which in a number of bottles becomes more equal to the charging power, and so repels the fire back again on the globe, sooner than a single bottle would do.
Page 16
for the reason given s 10.
Page 22
The particles of water rising in vapours, attach themselves to particles of air.
Page 24
28.
Page 25
35.
Page 26
And also how electrical clouds may be carried within land very far from the sea, before they have an opportunity to strike.
Page 32
But that is not the case with bodies of any other figure.
Page 33
On these accounts we suppose electrified bodies discharge their atmospheres upon unelectrified bodies more easily and at a greater distance from their angles and points than from their smooth sides.
Page 36
Nay, even if the needle be placed upon the floor near the punch, its point upwards, the end of the punch, tho' so much higher than the needle, will not attract the scale and receive its fire, for the needle will get it and convey it away, before it comes nigh enough for the punch to act.
Page 39
We once took two pieces of thick looking-glass, as broad as a Gunter's scale, and 6 inches long; and placing leaf gold between them, put them betwixt two smoothly plain'd pieces of wood, and fix'd them tight in a book-binder's small press; yet though they were so closely confined, the force of the electrical shock shivered the glass into many pieces.
Page 40
This will appear plain, when the difference of acuteness in the corners is made very great.
Page 44
more of this electrical fluid than other common matter: That when it is blown, as it cools, and the particles of common fire leave it, its pores become a vacuum: That the component parts of glass are extremely small and fine, I guess from its never showing a rough face when it breaks, but always a polish; and from the smallness of its particles I suppose the pores between them must be exceeding small, which is the reason that Aqua-fortis, nor any other menstruum we have, can enter to separate them and dissolve the substance; nor is any fluid we know of, fine enough to enter, except common fire, and the electrical fluid.
Page 46
34.
Page 48
And as the oil of turpentine being an electric _per se_, would not conduct what came up from the floor, was obliged to jump from the end of one chain, to the end of the other, through the substance of that oil, which we could see in large sparks; and so it had a fair opportunity of seizing some of the finest particles of the oil in its passage, and carrying them off with it: but no such effect followed, nor could I perceive the least difference in the smell of the electrical effluvia thus collected, from what it has when collected otherwise; nor does it otherwise affect the body of a person electrised.
Page 49
Place a thick plate of glass under the rubbing cushion, to cut off the communication of.
Page 53
[2] Our tubes are made here of green glass, 27 or 30 inches long, as big as can be grasped.
Page 54
In the fore crescent the fire is passing out of the cushion into the glass; in the other it is leaving the glass, and returning into the back part of the cushion.