The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 3 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 114

opposition to paper-money, as appears by the
report. Dr. Franklin being asked to draw up an answer to their
report, wrote the paper given above. B. V.

[56] I understand that Dr. Franklin is the friend who assisted
governor Pownall in drawing up a plan for a general paper-currency
for America, to be established by the British government. See
Governor Pownall's Administration of the Colonies, 5th Edition, p.
199, and 208. B. V.

_To the Freemen of Pensylvania, on the Subject of a particular
Militia-Bill, rejected by the Proprietor's Deputy or Governor._

_Philadelphia, Sept. 28, 1764._


Your desire of knowing how the militia-bill came to fail in the last
assembly shall immediately be complied with.

As the governor pressed hard for a militia-law to secure the internal
peace of the province, and the people of this country had not been
accustomed to militia service; the house, to make it more generally
agreeable to the freeholders, formed the bill so as that they might
have some share in the election of the officers; to secure them
from having absolute strangers set over them, or persons generally

This was no more, than that every company should choose, and
recommend to the governor, three persons for each office of captain,
lieutenant, and ensign; _out of which three_, the governor was to
commission _one_, that he thought most proper, or which he pleased,
to be the officer. And that the captains, lieutenants, and ensigns,
so commissioned by the governor, should, in their respective
regiments, choose and recommend three persons for each office of
colonel, lieutenant-colonel, and major; out of which three the
governor was to commission _one_, whichever he pleased, to each of
the said offices.

The governor's amendment to the bill in this particular was, to
strike out wholly this privilege of the people, and take to himself
the _sole_ appointment of all the officers.

The next amendment was to aggravate and _enhance all the fines_. A
fine, that the assembly had made one hundred pounds, and thought
heavy enough, the governor required to be three hundred pounds. What
they had made fifty pounds, he required to be one hundred and fifty.
These were fines on the commissioned officers for disobedience to
his commands; but the non-commissioned officers, or common soldiers,
whom, for the same offence, the assembly proposed to fine at ten
pounds, the governor insisted should be fined fifty pounds.

These fines, and some others to be mentioned hereafter, the assembly
thought ruinously high: but when, in a subsequent amendment, the
governor would, for offences among the militia, take away the _trial
by jury_ in the

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Text Comparison with Memoirs of Benjamin Franklin; Written by Himself. [Vol. 1 of 2] With His Most Interesting Essays, Letters, and Miscellaneous Writings; Familiar, Moral, Political, Economical, and Philosophical, Selected with Care from All His Published Productions, and Comprising Whatever Is Most Entertaining and Valuable to the General Reader

Page 19
A very flimsy scheme it was; however, it was immediately executed, and the paper was printed, accordingly, under my name for several months.
Page 27
I was not a little surprised, and Keimer stared with astonishment.
Page 32
The violation of my trust respecting Vernon's money was one of the first great errata of my life; and this showed that my father was not much out in his judgment when he considered me as too young to manage business.
Page 42
Our supper was only half an anchovy each, on a very little slice of bread and butter, and half a pint of ale between us; but the entertainment was in her conversation.
Page 47
Stephen Potts, a young countryman of full age, bred to the same, of uncommon natural parts, and great wit and humour, but a little idle.
Page 55
George Webb, who had found a female friend that lent him wherewith to purchase his time of Keimer, now came to offer himself as a journeyman to us.
Page 67
Should thine, for instance, when published (and I think they could not fail of it), lead the youth to equal the industry and temperance of thy early youth, what a blessing with that class would such a work be! I know of no character living, nor many of them put together, who has so much in his power as thyself to promote a greater spirit of industry and early attention to business, frugality, and temperance, with the American youth.
Page 101
Imagining then a semicircle, of which my distance should be the radius, and that it was filled with auditors, to each of whom I allowed two square feet, I computed that he might well be heard by more than thirty thousand.
Page 103
These all furnished themselves, as soon as they could, with arms, formed themselves into companies and regiments, chose their own officers, and met every week to be instructed in the manual exercise and other parts of military discipline.
Page 108
The office of justice of the peace I tried a little, by attending a few courts and sitting on the bench to hear causes; but finding that more knowledge of the common law than I possessed was necessary to act in that station with credit, I gradually withdrew from it, excusing myself by my being obliged to attend the higher duties of a legislator in the Assembly.
Page 122
Page 145
Some days after, when the wind was very fair and fresh, and the captain of the packet (Lutwidge) said he believed she then went at the rate of thirteen knots, Kennedy made the experiment, and owned his wager lost.
Page 152
He prevailed on his friend, M.
Page 158
In December, 1762, a circumstance which caused great alarm in the province took place.
Page 169
It was imported from Italy; the name of the artist is Francis Lazzarini; it is composed of Carara marble, and cost 500 guineas.
Page 176
* * * * * "I request my friends, Henry Hill, Esq.
Page 187
_ I never heard any objection to the right of laying duties to regulate commerce, but a right to lay internal taxes was never supposed to be in Parliament, as we are not represented there.
Page 188
_ But supposing the external tax or duty to be laid on the necessaries of life imported into your colony, will not that be the same thing in its effects as an internal tax? _A.
Page 210
"I relate this," says Captain Seagrave, "to show that some among these dark people have a strong sense of justice and honour, and that even the most brutal among them are capable of feeling the force of reason, and of being influenced by a fear of God (if the knowledge of the true God could be introduced among them), since even the fear of a false God, when their rage subsided, was not without its good effect.
Page 217
We indeed seem to _feel_ our own want of political wisdom, since we have been running all about in search of it.