The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 3 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 171

Britain, and the colonies only reaped
the benefit, without hitherto sharing the burthen, and were therefore
now indebted to Britain on that account. And this is the same kind
of argument that is used by those who would fix on the colonies the
heavy charge of unreasonableness and ingratitude, which I think
your friend did not intend. Please to acquaint him then, that the
fact is not so: that every year during the war, requisitions were
made by the crown on the colonies for raising money and men; that
accordingly they made _more extraordinary_ efforts, in proportion
to their abilities, than Britain did; that they raised, paid and
clothed, for five or six years, near 25,000 men, besides providing
for other services (as building forts, equipping guard-ships, paying
transports, &c.) And that this was more than their fair proportion is
not merely an opinion of mine, but was the judgment of government
here, in full knowledge of all the facts; for the then ministry, to
make the burthen more equal, recommended the case to parliament, and
obtained a reimbursement to the Americans of about 200,000_l._ sterling
every year; which amounted only to about two fifths of their expence;
and great part of the rest lies still a load of debt upon them; heavy
taxes on all their estates, real and personal, being laid by acts
of their assemblies to discharge it, and yet will not discharge it
in many years. While then these burthens continue: while Britain
restrains the colonies in every branch of commerce and manufactures
that she thinks interferes with her own; while she drains the
colonies, by her trade with them, of all the cash they can procure
by every art and industry in any part of the world, and thus keeps
them always in her debt: (for they can make no law to discourage the
importation of your to _them_ ruinous superfluities, as _you_ do
the superfluities of France; since such a law would immediately be
reported against by your board of trade, and repealed by the crown:)
I say while these circumstances continue, and while there subsists
the established method of royal requisitions, for raising money on
them by their own assemblies on every proper occasion; can it be
necessary or prudent to distress and vex them by taxes laid here, in
a parliament wherein they have no representative, and in a manner
which they look upon to be unconstitutional and subversive of their
most valuable rights; and are they to be thought unreasonable and
ungrateful if they oppose such taxes? Wherewith, they say, shall we
show our loyalty to our gracious king,

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Text Comparison with Experiments and Observations on Electricity Made at Philadelphia in America

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--If a cork-ball so suspended be repelled by the tube, and a point be presented quick to it, tho' at a considerable distance, 'tis surprizing to see how suddenly it flies back to the tube.
Page 8
Page 9
Hence have arisen some new terms among us: we say, _B_, (and bodies like circumstanced) is electrised _positively_; _A_, _negatively_.
Page 14
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Page 23
If air thus loaded be compressed by adverse winds, or by being driven against mountains, &c.
Page 25
--Let the two sets then represent two clouds, the one a sea cloud electrified, the other a land cloud.
Page 26
But if two gun-barrels electrified will strike at two inches distance, and make a loud snap, to what a great distance may 10,000 acres of electrified cloud strike and give its fire, and how loud must be that crack! 38.
Page 30
But in common matter there is (generally) as much of the electrical, as it will contain within its substance.
Page 32
Without this attraction it would not remain round the body, but dissipate in the air.
Page 36
Nay, even if the needle be placed upon the floor near the punch, its point upwards, the end of the punch, tho' so much higher than the needle, will not attract the scale and receive its fire, for the needle will get it and convey it away, before it comes nigh enough for the punch to act.
Page 38
We have also melted gold, silver, and copper, in small quantities, by the electrical flash.
Page 41
Thus the difference of distance is always proportioned to the difference of acuteness.
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Page 43
If so, there must be a great quantity in glass, because a great quantity is thus discharged even from very thin glass.
Page 45
The surface that has been thus emptied by having its electrical fluid driven out, resumes again an equal quantity with violence, as soon as the glass has an opportunity to discharge that over-quantity more than it could retain by attraction in its other surface, by the additional repellency of which the vacuum had been occasioned.
Page 47
You may lessen its whole quantity by drawing out a part, which the whole body will again resume; but of glass you can only lessen the quantity contain'd in one of its surfaces; and not that, but by supplying an equal quantity at the same time to the other surface; so that the whole glass may always have the same quantity in the two surfaces, their two different quantities being added together.
Page 54
[12] See farther experiments, s 15.