The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 3 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 194

as were suitable to their circumstances and abilities,
whenever called upon for that purpose, in the usual constitutional
manner; and I had the honour of communicating this instruction to
that honourable gentleman then minister.[95]

_Q._ Would they do this for a British concern, as suppose a war in
some part of Europe, that did not affect them?

_A._ Yes, for any thing that concerned the general interest. They
consider themselves as part of the whole.

_Q._ What is the usual constitutional manner of calling on the
colonies for aids?

_A._ A letter from the secretary of state.

_Q._ Is this all you mean; a letter from the secretary of state?

_A._ I mean the usual way of requisition, in a circular letter from
the secretary of state, by his majesty's command, reciting the
occasion, and recommending it to the colonies to grant such aids as
became their loyalty, and were suitable to their abilities.

_Q._ Did the secretary of state ever write for _money_ for the crown?

_A._ The requisitions have been to raise, clothe, and pay men, which
cannot be done without money.

_Q._ Would they grant money alone, if called on?

_A._ In my opinion they would, money as well as men, when they have
money, or can make it.

_Q._ If the parliament should repeal the stamp act, will the assembly
of Pensylvania rescind their resolutions?

_A._ I think not.

_Q._ Before there was any thought of the stamp act, did they wish for
a representation in parliament?

_A._ No.

_Q._ Don't you know that there is, in the Pensylvanian charter, an
express reservation of the right of parliament to lay taxes there?

_A._ I know there is a clause in the charter, by which the king
grants that he will levy no taxes on the inhabitants, unless it be
with the consent of the assembly, or by act of parliament.

_Q._ How then could the assembly of Pensylvania assert, that laying a
tax on them by the stamp act was an infringement of their rights?

_A._ They understand it thus: by the same charter, and otherwise,
they are intitled to all the privileges and liberties of Englishmen;
they find in the great charters, and the petition and declaration
of rights, that one of the privileges of English subjects is, that
they are not to be taxed but by their _common consent_; they have
therefore relied upon it, from the first settlement of the province,
that the parliament never would, nor could, by colour of that
clause in the charter, assume a right of taxing them, _till_ it had
qualified itself to exercise such right, by admitting representatives
from the people

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Text Comparison with Experiments and Observations on Electricity Made at Philadelphia in America

Page 0
Page 3
So wonderfully are these two states of Electricity, the _plus_ and _minus_, combined and balanced in this miraculous bottle! situated and related to each other in a manner that I can by no means comprehend! If it were possible that a bottle should in one part contain a quantity of air strongly comprest, and in another part a perfect vacuum, we know the equilibrium would be instantly restored _within_.
Page 4
Place an electricised phial on wax; take a wire (_g_) in form of a C, the ends at such a distance when bent, as that the upper may touch the wire of the bottle, when the lower touches the bottom: stick the outer part on a stick of sealing wax (_h_) which will serve as a handle.
Page 8
But if the persons on wax touch one another during the exciting of the tube, neither of them will appear to be electrised.
Page 11
Page 12
8, 9, 10, 11.
Page 16
Page 17
If now the wire of a bottle electrified in the common way, be brought near the circumference of this wheel, it will attract the nearest thimble, and so put the wheel in motion; that thimble, in passing by, receives a spark, and thereby being electrified is repelled and so driven forwards; while a second being attracted, approaches the wire, receives a spark, and is driven after the first, and so on till the wheel has gone once round, when the thimbles before electrified approaching the wire, instead of being attracted as they were at first, are repelled, and the motion presently ceases.
Page 18
--This is called an electrical jack; and if a large fowl were spitted on the upright shaft, it would be carried round before a fire with a motion fit for roasting.
Page 20
Perhaps if that due quantity of electrical fire so obstinately retained by glass, could be separated from it, it would no longer be glass; it might lose its transparency, or its brittleness, or its elasticity.
Page 25
To shew this by an easy experiment.
Page 26
When the gun-barrel (in electrical experiments) has but little electrical fire in it, you must approach it very near with your knuckle, before you can draw a spark.
Page 27
_ as so many prominencies and points, draw the electrical fire, and the whole cloud discharges there.
Page 28
Wood rotting in old trees or buildings does the same.
Page 31
When the quantity of electrical fluid taken from a piece of common matter is restored again, it enters, the expanded triangles being again compressed till there is room for the whole.
Page 46
But thus it may: after every stroke, before you pass your hand up to make another, let the second person apply his finger to the wire, take the spark, and then withdraw his finger; and so on till he has drawn a number of sparks; thus will the inner surface be exhausted, and the outer surface charged; then wrap a sheet of gilt paper close round the outer surface, and grasping it in your hand you may receive a shock by applying the finger of the other hand to the wire: for now the vacant pores in the inner surface resume their quantity, and the overcharg'd pores in the outer surface discharge that overplus; the equilibrium being restored through your body, which could not be restored through the glass.
Page 47
Thus I take the difference between non electrics and glass, an electric _per se_, to consist in these two particulars.
Page 50
For the globe then draws the electrical fire out of the outside surface of the phial, and forces it, through the prime conductor and wire of the phial, into the inside surface.
Page 51
_Ringing of chimes_, &c.
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