The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 3 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 208

value myself." Speeches in 1774 and 1775. B. V.

[102] This was afterwards attempted by the British legislature, in
the case of the Massachusett's Bay. B. V.

[103] The lords and commons very prudently concurred in an address
for this purpose, and the king graciously assured them of his
compliance with their wishes. B. V.




_State of the Constitution of the Colonies, by Governor
Pownall[104]; with Remarks by Dr. Franklin._

[PRINCIPLES.]

1. Wherever any Englishmen go forth without the realm, and make
settlements in partibus exteris, "These settlements as English
settlements, and these inhabitants as English subjects (carrying with
them the laws of the land wherever they form colonies, and receiving
his majesty's protection by virtue of his royal charter[105]"
or commissions of government) "have and enjoy all liberties and
immunities of free and natural subjects, to all intents constructions
and purposes whatsoever, as if they and every of them were born
within the realm[106];" and are bound by the like allegiance as every
other subject of the realm.

Remarks. _The settlers of colonies in America did not carry with them
the_ laws of the land, _as being bound by them wherever they should
settle. They left the realm to avoid the inconveniences and hardships
they were under, where some of those laws were in force, particularly
ecclesiastical laws, those for payment of tythes and others. Had it
been understood, that they were to carry these laws with them, they
had better have staid at home among their friends, unexposed to
the risques and toils of a new settlement. They carried with them,
a right to_ such parts _of the_ laws of the land, _as they should
judge advantageous or useful to them; a right to be free from those
they thought hurtful; and a right to make such others, as they should
think necessary, not infringing the general rights of Englishmen: and
such_ new _laws they were to form, as agreeable as might be to the
laws of England_. B. F.

2. Therefore the _common law of England_, and all _such statutes_ as
were enacted and in force at _the time_ in which such settlers went
forth, and such colonies and plantations were established, (except as
hereafter excepted) together with all such alterations and amendments
as the said common law may have received, is from time to time, and
at all times, the law of those colonies and plantations.

Rem. _So far as they adopt it, by express laws or by practice._ B. F.

3. Therefore all statutes, touching the _right of the succession_,
and settlement of the crown, with the statutes of treason relating
thereto[107]; all

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Text Comparison with Franklin's Way to Wealth; or, "Poor Richard Improved"

Page 0
Darton, Junr.
Page 1
DARTON_, And of most Booksellers in the United Kingdom.
Page 2
We are taxed twice as much by our idleness, three times as much by our pride, and four times as much by our folly; and from these taxes the commissioners cannot ease or deliver us by allowing an abatement.
Page 3
on diseases, absolutely shortens life.
Page 4
Darton, Junr.
Page 5
" Beware of little expences; "A small leak will sink a great ship," as Poor Richard says; and again, "Who dainties love shall beggars prove;" and moreover, "Fools make feasts, and wise men eat them.
Page 6
These are not the necessaries of life; they can scarcely be called the conveniences: and yet only because they look pretty, how many want to have them?--By these, and other extravagancies, the genteel are reduced to poverty, and forced to borrow of those whom they formerly despised, but who, through industry and frugality, have maintained their standing; in which case it appears plainly, that "A ploughman on his legs is higher than a gentleman on his knees," as Poor Richard says.
Page 7
" And, after all, of what use is this pride of appearance, for which so much is risked, so much is suffered? It cannot promote health, nor ease pain; it makes no increase of merit in the person, it creates envy, it hastens misfortune.
Page 8
IV.
Page 9
However, I resolved to be the better for the echo of it; and, though I had at first determined to buy stuff for a new coat, I went away, resolved to wear my old one a little longer.