The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 3 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 274

is welcome;
and if he exercises it, and behaves well, he will be respected by all
that know him; but a mere man of quality, who on that account wants
to live upon the public by some office or salary, will be despised
and disregarded. The husbandman is in honour there, and even the
mechanic, because their employments are useful. The people have a
saying, that God Almighty is himself a mechanic, the greatest in
the universe; and he is respected and admired more for the variety,
ingenuity, and utility of his handiworks, than for the antiquity of
his family. They are pleased with the observation of a negro, and
frequently mention it, that Boccarora (meaning the white man) make de
black man workee, make de horse workee, make de ox workee, make ebery
ting workee; only de hog. He de hog, no workee; he eat, he drink, he
walk about, he go to sleep when he please, he libb like a gentleman.
According to these opinions of the Americans, one of them would think
himself more obliged to a genealogist, who could prove for him that
his ancestors and relations for ten generations had been ploughmen,
smiths, carpenters, turners, weavers, tanners, or even shoemakers,
and consequently that they were useful members of society; than if he
could only prove that they were gentlemen, doing nothing of value,
but living idly on the labour of others, mere _fruges consumere
nati_[160], and otherwise _good for nothing_, till by their death
their estates, like the carcase of the negro's gentleman-hog, come to
be _cut up_.

With regard to encouragements for strangers from government, they are
really only what are derived from good laws and liberty. Strangers
are welcome, because there is room enough for them all, and therefore
the old inhabitants are not jealous of them; the laws protect them
sufficiently, so that they have no need of the patronage of great
men; and every one will enjoy securely the profits of his industry.
But if he does not bring a fortune with him, he must work and be
industrious to live. One or two years residence give him all the
rights of a citizen; but the government does not at present, whatever
it may have done in former times, hire people to become settlers, by
paying their passages, giving land, negroes, utensils, stock, or any
other kind of emolument whatsoever. In short, America is the land of
labour, and by no means what the English call Lubberland, and the
French Pays de Cocagne, where the streets are said to be paved with
half-peck loaves, the houses tiled with pancakes,

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Text Comparison with Experiments and Observations on Electricity Made at Philadelphia in America

Page 10
--We fire spirits with the wire of the phial.
Page 16
If now the picture be moderately electrified, and another person take hold of the frame with one hand, so that his fingers touch its inside gilding, and with the other hand endeavour to take off the crown, he will receive a terrible blow, and fail in the attempt.
Page 17
If now the wire of a bottle electrified in the common way, be brought near the circumference of this wheel, it will attract the nearest thimble, and so put the wheel in motion; that thimble, in passing by, receives a spark, and thereby being electrified is repelled and so driven forwards; while a second being attracted, approaches the wire, receives a spark, and is driven after the first, and so on till the wheel has gone once round, when the thimbles before electrified approaching the wire, instead of being attracted as they were at first, are repelled, and the motion presently ceases.
Page 18
Two small hemispheres of wood are then fixed with cement to the middle of the upper and under sides, centrally opposite, and in each of them a thick strong wire eight or ten inches long, which together make the axis of the wheel.
Page 22
9.
Page 23
Particles of water, having no fire in them, mutually attract each other.
Page 24
30.
Page 26
And also how electrical clouds may be carried within land very far from the sea, before they have an opportunity to strike.
Page 30
Hence the appearing divergency in a stream of electrified effluvia.
Page 32
But that is not the case with bodies of any other figure.
Page 34
Nor.
Page 37
If any danger to the man should be apprehended (though I think there would be none) let him stand on the floor of his box, and now and then bring near to the rod, the loop of a wire that has one end fastened to the leads, he holding it by a wax handle; so the sparks, if the rod is electrified, will strike from the rod to the wire, and not affect him.
Page 39
We have since found, that one strong shock breaks the continuity of the gold in the filleting, and makes it look rather like dust of gold, abundance of its parts being broken and driven off; and it will seldom conduct above one strong shock.
Page 40
Were these two points perfectly equal in acuteness, the leaf would take place exactly in the middle space, for its Weight is a trifle, compared to the power acting on it: But it is generally nearest the unelectrified plate, because, when the leaf is offered to the electrified plate at a distance, the sharpest point is commonly first affected and raised towards it; so that point, from its greater acuteness, receiving the fluid faster than its opposite can discharge it at equal distances, it retires from the electrified plate, and draws nearer to the unelectrified plate, till it comes to a distance where the discharge can be exactly equal to the receipt, the latter being lessened, and the former encreased; and there it remains as long as the globe continues to supply fresh electrical matter.
Page 41
Turn this leaf with the acute part uppermost, and then it takes place nearest the unelectrified plate, because otherwise it receives faster at its acute point than it can discharge at its right-angled one.
Page 42
This latter position may seem a paradox to some, being contrary to the hitherto received opinion; and therefore I shall now endeavour to explain it.
Page 45
[10] But if the inside of the globe be lined with a non-electric, the additional repellency of the electrical fluid, thus collected by friction on the rubb'd part of the globe's outer surface, drives an equal quantity out of the inner surface into that non-electric lining, which receiving it, and carrying it away from the rubb'd part into the common mass, through the axis of the globe and frame of the machine, the new collected electrical fluid can enter and remain in the outer surface, and none of it (or a very little) will be received by the prime conductor.
Page 47
But glass, from the smallness of its pores, or stronger attraction of what it contains, refuses to admit so free a motion; a glass rod will not conduct a shock, nor will the thinnest glass suffer any particle entring one of its surfaces to pass thro' to the other.
Page 52
The History of Comets from the earliest Account of those kinds of Planets to the present Time; wherein the Sentiments of the Ancient and Modern Philosophers are occasionally displayed.
Page 53
their Tails and Atmospheres accounted for.