The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 3 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 314

the same, thy profit will be as great as mine.

I am, as ever,

Thine to serve thee,



[175] Dr. Franklin, as I have been made to understand, for many years
published the Pensylvania Almanack, called _Poor Richard [Saunders]_,
and furnished it with various sentences and proverbs, which had
principal relation to the topics of "industry, attention to one's
own business, and frugality." The whole or chief of these sentences
and proverbs he at last collected and digested in the above general
preface, which his countrymen read with much avidity and profit. B. V.

_Advice to a Young Tradesman[176]._

Written Anno 1748.


As you have desired it of me, I write the following hints, which have
been of service to me, and may, if observed, be so to you.

Remember, that _time_ is money. He, that can earn ten shillings a day
by his labour, and goes abroad, or sits idle one half of that day,
though he spends but sixpence during his diversion or idleness, ought
not to reckon _that_ the only expence; he has really spent, or rather
thrown away, five shillings besides.

Remember, that _credit_ is money. If a man lets his money lie in my
hands after it is due, he gives me the interest, or so much as I can
make of it, during that time. This amounts to a considerable sum
where a man has good and large credit, and makes good use of it.

Remember, that money is of a prolific generating nature. Money can
beget money, and its offspring can beget more, and so on. Five
shillings turned is six, turned again it is seven and three-pence,
and so on till it becomes an hundred pounds. The more there is of it,
the more it produces every turning, so that the profits rise quicker
and quicker. He that kills a breeding sow destroys all her offspring
to the thousandth generation. He that murders a crown destroys all
that it might have produced, even scores of pounds.

Remember, that six pounds a year is but a groat a day. For this
little sum (which may be daily wasted either in time or expence
unperceived) a man of credit may, on his own security, have the
constant possession and use of an hundred pounds. So much in stock,
briskly turned by an industrious man, produces great advantage.

Remember this saying, "the good paymaster is lord of another man's
purse." He that is known to pay punctually and exactly to the time he
promises may at

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Text Comparison with Experiments and Observations on Electricity Made at Philadelphia in America

Page 3
Page 7
By breathing on it.
Page 12
For if, on the explosion, the electrical fire came out of.
Page 13
Besides the phial will not suffer what is called a _charging_, unless as much fire can go out of it one way, as is thrown in by another.
Page 15
Then dexterously placing it again between the leaden plates, and compleating a circle between the two surfaces, a violent shock ensued.
Page 17
About thirty _radii_ of equal length, made of sash glass cut in narrow strips, issue horizontally from the circumference of the board, the ends most distant from the center being about four inches apart.
Page 19
--The thimbles are well fixed, and in so exact a circle, that the bullets may pass within a very small distance of each of them.
Page 20
Take a bottle in each hand, one that is electrify'd through the hook, the other through the coating: Apply the giving wire to the shot, which will electrify it _positively_, and the cork shall be repelled: Then apply the requiring wire, which will take out the spark given by the other; when the cork will return to the shot: Apply the same again, and take out another spark, so will the shot be electrify'd _negatively_; and the cork in that case shall be repelled equally as before.
Page 24
But clouds formed by vapours raised from the sea, having both fires, and particularly a great quantity of the electrical, support their water strongly, raise it high, and being moved by winds may bring it over the middle of the broadest continent from the middle of the widest ocean.
Page 27
Page 28
Till lately we could only fire warm vapours; but now we can burn hard dry rosin.
Page 29
But if a sword can be melted in the scabbard, and money in a man's pocket, by lightning, without burning either, it must be a cold fusion.
Page 31
If more particles enter, they take their places where the balance is equal between the attraction of the common matter and their own mutual repulsion.
Page 33
has the line A, E, for its basis.
Page 35
It is suspended by silk lines, and when charg'd will strike at near two inches distance, a pretty hard stroke so as to make one's knuckle ach.
Page 36
The horizontal motion of the scales over the floor, may represent the motion of the clouds over the earth; and the erect iron punch, a hill or high building; and then we see how electrified clouds passing over hills or high buildings at too great a height to strike, may be attracted lower till within their striking distance.
Page 41
Thus the difference of distance is always proportioned to the difference of acuteness.
Page 42
Now let the globe be turned, and you see a spark strike from the bullet to the wire of the bottle, and the same instant you see and feel an exactly equal spark striking from the coating on your knuckle, and so on spark for spark.
Page 45
The surface that has been thus emptied by having its electrical fluid driven out, resumes again an equal quantity with violence, as soon as the glass has an opportunity to discharge that over-quantity more than it could retain by attraction in its other surface, by the additional repellency of which the vacuum had been occasioned.
Page 46
[12] If the tube be exhausted of air, a non electric lining in contact with the wire is not necessary; for _in vacuo_, the electrical fire will fly freely from the inner surface, without a non-electric conductor: but air resists its motion; for being itself an electric _per se_, it does not attract it, having already its quantity.