The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 3 [of 3]

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 83

and industrious out of the country. There is, in short, scarce a
single instance in history of the contrary, where manufactures have
once taken firm root. They sometimes start up in a new place; but
are generally supported, like exotic plants, at more expence than
they are worth for any thing but curiosity; until these new seats
become the refuge of the manufacturers driven from the old ones.
The conquest of Constantinople, and final reduction of the Greek
empire, dispersed many curious manufacturers into different parts
of Christendom. The former conquests of its provinces, had _before_
done the same. The loss of liberty in Verona, Milan, Florence, Pisa,
Pistoia, and other great cities of Italy, drove the manufacturers
of woollen cloths into Spain and Flanders. The latter first lost
their trade and manufactures to Antwerp and the cities of Brabant;
from whence, by persecution for religion, they were sent into
Holland and England: [while] the civil wars, during the minority of
Charles the First of Spain, which ended in the loss of the liberty
of their great towns, ended too in the loss of the manufactures of
Toledo, Segovia, Salamanca, Medina del campo, &c. The revocation of
the _edict of Nantes_ communicated, to all the protestant part of
Europe, the paper, silk, and other valuable manufacturers of France;
almost peculiar at that time to that country, and till then in
vain attempted elsewhere. To be convinced, that it is not soil and
climate, or even freedom from taxes, that determines the residence
of manufacturers, we need only turn our eyes on Holland; where a
multitude of manufactures are still carried on (perhaps more than on
the same extent of territory any where in Europe) and sold on terms
upon which they cannot be had in any other part of the world. And
this too is true of those _growths_, which, by their nature and the
labour required to raise them, come the nearest to manufactures.

As to the common-place objection to the North-American settlements,
that they are _in the same climate, and their produce the same
as that of England_;--in the first place it is not true; it is
particularly not so of the countries now likely to be added to our
settlements; and of our present colonies, the products, lumber,
tobacco, rice, and indigo, great articles of commerce, do not
interfere with the products of England: in the next place, a man must
know very little of the trade of the world, who does not know, that
the greater part of it is carried on between countries whose climate
differs very little. Even the trade between the

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Text Comparison with Experiments and Observations on Electricity Made at Philadelphia in America

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is electrised _positively_ or _plus_, the bottom of the bottle is electrised _negatively_ or _minus_, in exact proportion: _i.
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Then electricise the bottle, and place it on wax.
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--If a ring of persons take the shock among them, the experiment is called, _The Conspirators_.
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Perhaps if that due quantity of electrical fire so obstinately retained by glass, could be separated from it, it would no longer be glass; it might lose its transparency, or its brittleness, or its elasticity.
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Bring them within the sphere of attraction, and they will draw towards each other, and you will see the separated balls close thus; the first electrified ball that comes near an unelectrified ball by attraction joins it, and gives it fire; instantly they separate, and each flies to another ball of its own party, one to give, the other to receive fire; and so it proceeds through both sets, but so quick as to be in a manner instantaneous.
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When the air, with its vapours raised from the ocean between the tropics, comes to descend in the polar regions, and to be in contact with the vapours arising there, the electrical fire they brought begins to be communicated, and is seen in clear nights, being first visible where 'tis first in motion, that is, where the contact begins, or in the most northern part; from thence the streams of light seem to shoot southerly, even up to the zenith of northern countries.
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Hence thunder-gusts after heats, and cool air after gusts; the water and the clouds that bring it, coming from a higher and therefore a cooler region.
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But points have a property, by which they _draw on_ as well as _throw off_ the electrical fluid, at greater distances than blunt bodies can.
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This large metallic surface supports a much greater electrical atmosphere than a rod of iron of 50 times the weight would do.
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We did not think of its being deprived of sight;.
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surface than the glass would naturally draw in; this increases the repelling power on that side, and overpowering the attraction on the other, drives out part of the fluid that had been imbibed by that surface, if there be any non-electric ready to receive it: such there is in all cases where glass is electrified to give a shock.
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What is collected from the hand in the downward rubbing stroke, entering the pores of the glass, and driving an equal quantity out of the inner surface into the non-electric lining: and the hand in passing up to take a second stroke, takes out again what had been thrown into the outer surface, and then the inner surface receives back again what it had given to the non-electric lining.
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I placed a glass plate under my cushion, to cut off the communication between the cushion and floor; then brought a small chain from the cushion into a glass of oil of turpentine, and carried another chain from the oil of turpentine to the floor, taking care that the chain from the cushion to the glass touch'd no part of the frame of the machine.
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I have also smelt the electrical fire when drawn through gold, silver, copper, lead, iron, wood, and the human body, and could perceive no difference; the odour is always the same where the spark does not burn what it strikes; and therefore I imagine it does not take that smell from any quality of the bodies it passes through.
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electrical fire from the floor to the cushion; then, if there be no fine points or hairy threads sticking out from the cushion, or from the parts of the machine opposite to the cushion, (of which you must be careful) you can get but a few sparks from the prime conductor, which are all the cushion will part with.