Vie de Benjamin Franklin, écrite par lui-même - Tome II suivie de ses œuvres morales, politiques et littéraires

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 108

la révolution d'Amérique a prouvé combien ce
dernier étoit clairvoyant. (_Note du Traducteur._)

[63] Ces encouragemens étoient une exemption de toute espèce de
paiement en argent, de cens pour dix ans, et de toutes les taxes
pour quinze ans.

[64] Les héritiers de William Penn, fondateur de la colonie de
Pensylvanie.




SUR UN PLAN DE GOUVERNEMENT ENVOYÉ PAR LE CABINET DE LONDRES EN
AMÉRIQUE[65].


AU GOUVERNEUR SHIRLEY.

Le mardi matin.

Je renvoie à Votre Excellence les feuilles détachées du plan, qu'elle a
bien voulu me communiquer.

Je crains que le désir qu'on a d'empêcher le peuple des colonies de
participer à la nomination du grand-conseil, et de le faire taxer par le
parlement d'Angleterre, où il n'est point représenté, n'occasionne
beaucoup de mécontentement.

Il est très possible que ce gouvernement général soit aussi bien, aussi
fidèlement administré sans que le peuple s'en mêle, qu'avec lui: mais
lorsqu'on lui a imposé de pesans fardeaux, on a toujours trouvé utile de
faire en sorte que cette imposition parût en partie son ouvrage, attendu
qu'il la supporte beaucoup mieux lorsqu'il croit qu'elle vient de lui,
et que quand quelques mesures publiques lui semblent injustes ou
désagréables, les roues du gouvernement ont de la peine à marcher.

* * * * *

AU MÊME.

Mercredi matin.

Je communiquai hier à Votre Excellence, mon opinion sur le
mécontentement que doit exciter l'envie d'empêcher le peuple
de participer à l'élection des membres du grand-conseil, et de
le faire taxer par un acte du parlement, sans qu'il y ait des
représentans.--Lorsqu'il

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Text Comparison with Experiments and Observations on Electricity Made at Philadelphia in America

Page 1
1.
Page 5
a man standing on wax may be electrised a number of times, by repeatedly touching the wire of an electrised bottle (held in the hand of one standing on the floor) he receiving the fire from the wire each time: yet holding it in his own hand, and touching the wire, tho' he draws a strong spark, and is violently shock'd, no Electricity remains in him; the fire only passing thro' him from the upper to the lower part of the bottle.
Page 6
5, slip it on the end of the cover of the book over the gold line, so as that the shoulder of it may press upon one end of the gold line, the ring up, but leaning towards the other end of the book.
Page 10
--We suspend by fine silk thread a counterfeit spider, made of a small piece of burnt cork, with legs of linnen thread, and a grain or two of lead stuck in him to give him more weight.
Page 11
R.
Page 13
By this means a great number of bottles might be charged with the same labour, and equally high, with one alone, were it not that every bottle receives new fire, and loses its old with some reluctance, or rather gives some small resistance to the charging, which in a number of bottles becomes more equal to the charging power, and so repels the fire back again on the globe, sooner than a single bottle would do.
Page 15
We then took two plates of lead of equal dimensions, but less than the glass by two inches every way, and electrified the glass between them, by electrifying the uppermost lead; then separated the glass from the lead, in doing which, what little fire might be in the lead was taken out and the glass being touched in the electrified parts with a finger, afforded only very small pricking sparks, but a great number of them might be taken from different places.
Page 22
being strongly electrified (as well as when heated by common fire) rises in vapours more copiously; the attraction of cohesion among its particles being greatly weakened, by the opposite power of repulsion introduced with the electrical fire; and when any particle is by any means disengaged, 'tis immediately repelled, and so flies into the air.
Page 23
If the particles of water bring electrical fire when they attach themselves to air, the repulsion between the particles of water electrified, joins with the natural repulsion of the air, to force its particles to a greater distance, whereby the triangles are dilated, and the air rises, carrying up with it the water.
Page 25
For if an electrified cloud coming from the sea, meets in the air a cloud raised from the land, and therefore not electrified; the first will flash its fire into the latter, and thereby both clouds shall be made suddenly to deposite water.
Page 28
And when we can procure greater electrical sparks, we may be able to fire not only unwarm'd spirits, as lightning does, but even wood, by giving sufficient agitation to the common fire contained in it, as friction we know will do.
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56.
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[7] 5.
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13.
Page 33
On these accounts we suppose electrified bodies discharge their atmospheres upon unelectrified bodies more easily and at a greater distance from their angles and points than from their smooth sides.
Page 35
As the pasteboard tube hangs loose on silk lines, when you approach it with the punch iron, it likewise will move towards the punch, being attracted while it is charged; but if at the same instant a point be presented as before, it retires again, for the point discharges it.
Page 39
We have since found, that one strong shock breaks the continuity of the gold in the filleting, and makes it look rather like dust of gold, abundance of its parts being broken and driven off; and it will seldom conduct above one strong shock.
Page 45
[10] But if the inside of the globe be lined with a non-electric, the additional repellency of the electrical fluid, thus collected by friction on the rubb'd part of the globe's outer surface, drives an equal quantity out of the inner surface into that non-electric lining, which receiving it, and carrying it away from the rubb'd part into the common mass, through the axis of the globe and frame of the machine, the new collected electrical fluid can enter and remain in the outer surface, and none of it (or a very little) will be received by the prime conductor.
Page 47
Thus I take the difference between non electrics and glass, an electric _per se_, to consist in these two particulars.
Page 54
[10] In the dark the electrical fluid may be seen on the cushion in two semi-circles or half-moons, one on the fore part, the other on the back part of the cushion, just where the globe and cushion separate.