Vie de Benjamin Franklin, écrite par lui-même - Tome II suivie de ses œuvres morales, politiques et littéraires

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 121

y a plus: c'est que
l'insuffisance des salaires est une cause de décadence pour une
manufacture, comme leur haut prix est une cause de prospérité.

Les hauts salaires attirent les ouvriers les plus habiles, les plus
industrieux. Alors l'ouvrage est mieux fabriqué; il se vend mieux; et
par ce moyen, l'entrepreneur fait plus de profit qu'il n'en pourroit
faire par la diminution du prix des ouvriers. Un bon ouvrier gâte moins
d'outils, perd moins de matières et travaille plus promptement qu'un
autre; ce qui est encore une source de profit pour l'entrepreneur.

Le perfectionnement du mécanisme dans tous les arts est, en grande
partie, dû aux ouvriers. Il n'y a point de grande manufacture, où ils
n'aient inventé quelque pratique utile, qui épargne le temps et les
matières, ou rend l'ouvrage meilleur.--Si les ouvrages des manufactures
communes, les seules dignes d'intéresser l'homme d'état, si les étoffes
de laine, de coton, même de soie, les ouvrages de fer, d'acier, de
cuivre, les peaux, les cuirs et divers autres objets sont en général de
meilleure qualité, à prix égal, en Angleterre que dans les autres pays,
c'est indubitablement parce que les ouvriers y sont mieux payés.

Le bas prix des salaires n'est donc pas la véritable cause des avantages
du commerce de nation à nation: mais il est un des grands maux des
sociétés politiques.

Examinons à présent quelle est à cet égard la situation des États-Unis.
La condition du journalier, dans ces états, est infiniment meilleure,
que dans les plus riches contrées de l'ancien monde, et particulièrement
en Angleterre, où les salaires sont pourtant plus forts que dans aucune
autre partie de l'Europe.

Dans la province de New-York, les ouvriers des dernières classes et
qui exercent les genres d'industrie les plus communs, gagnent
ordinairement par jour trois schellings six pences, monnoie de la
colonie, valant 2 schellings sterling.

Un charpentier de vaisseau, gagne
10 sch. 6 pences, monnoie de la colonie,
avec une pinte de rhum, valant en tout 5 sch. 6 pences st.

Un charpentier de haute futaie, ou un
briquetier, 8 sch. de la colonie 4

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Text Comparison with Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin

Page 1
69 VI.
Page 6
There is nothing of the impossible in the method and practice of Franklin as he sets them forth.
Page 13
And now I speak of thanking God, I desire with all humility to acknowledge that I owe the mentioned happiness of my past life to His kind providence, which lead me to the means I used and gave them success.
Page 15
He lived to a great age.
Page 39
I prais'd it much, and the happy life I led in it, expressing strongly my intention of returning to it; and, one of them asking what kind of money we had there, I produc'd a handful of silver, and spread it before them, which was a kind of raree-show[32] they had not been us'd to, paper being the money of Boston.
Page 47
Osborne was against Ralph, and told him he was no better a critic than poet, so he dropt the argument.
Page 48
Ralph, though married, and having one child, had determined to accompany me in this voyage.
Page 51
I had fifteen pistoles;[37] so he borrowed occasionally of me to subsist, while he was looking out for business.
Page 79
Charles Brockden, to put the whole in form of articles of agreement to be subscribed, by which each subscriber engag'd to pay a certain sum down for the first purchase of books, and an annual contribution for increasing them.
Page 86
Another from the Proverbs of Solomon, speaking of wisdom or virtue: "Length of days is in her right hand, and in her left hand riches and honour.
Page 92
, to be made use of in it, some of which I have still by me; but the necessary close attention to private business in the earlier part of my life, and public business since, have occasioned my postponing it; for, it being connected in my mind with _a great and extensive project_, that required the whole man to execute, and which an unforeseen succession of employs prevented my attending to, it has hitherto remain'd unfinish'd.
Page 106
[78] [78] "The authority of Franklin, the most eminently practical man of his age, in favor of reserving the study of the dead languages until the mind has reached a certain maturity, is confirmed by the confession of one of the most eminent scholars of any age.
Page 119
The honorable and learned Mr.
Page 141
--My son, William Franklin, is empowered to enter into like contracts with any person in Cumberland county.
Page 165
Our captain of the paquet had boasted much, before we sailed, of the swiftness of his ship; unfortunately, when we came to sea, she proved the dullest of ninety-six sail, to his no.
Page 166
By these devices it is possible to tell the speed of a ship.
Page 168
from the man at the helm, and from the rest of the watch, but by an accidental yaw of the ship was discover'd, and occasion'd a great alarm, we being very near it, the light appearing to me as big as a cartwheel.
Page 178
He was a man that never missed any occasion of giving instruction, and upon this he said to me, "_You are young, and have the world before you; stoop as you go through it, and you will miss many hard thumps_.
Page 185
to MONDAY December 11.
Page 188
therefore suspected to have received the Contagion; But upon the matter, it doth not appear there was the least Foundation for such a Report; tho' it is too plain the Distemper gains ground space in the Southern Parts of France.