sch. 6 pences st.
Un garçon tailleur, 5 sch. monnoie du
pays, ou environ 2 sch. 10 pences st.
Ces prix, bien plus forts que ceux de Londres, sont tout aussi hauts
dans les autres parties des États-Unis qu'à New-York. Je les ai tirés de
l'ouvrage d'Adams Smith sur _la Richesse des Nations_.
Un observateur éclairé qui, en 1780, voyagea dans une partie des
États-Unis, nous donne une idée encore plus favorable du prix auquel la
main-d'oeuvre y est portée.
«Je vis, dit-il, fabriquer à Sarmington une espèce de camelot, et une
autre étoffe de laine à raies bleues et blanches, pour l'habillement des
femmes. Ces étoffes se vendent trois schellings et demi l'aune,
monnoie du pays, ce qui fait à peu-près quarante-cinq sous
tournois.--Les fils et petits-fils du maître de la maison travailloient
au métier. Un ouvrier peut faire à son aise cinq aunes d'étoffe par
jour; et comme la matière première ne coûte qu'un schelling, il peut
gagner dix à douze schellings dans sa journée».--Enfin, ce fait est si
connu, qu'il est inutile de chercher à le prouver par d'autres
Les causes de la cherté du travail dans nos états américains, ne peuvent
donc que se fortifier sans cesse; puisque l'agriculture et la population
y font des progrès si rapides, que tous les genres de travaux y
Ce n'est pas tout. Le taux élevé des salaires qu'on y donne en argent,
prouve qu'ils sont encore meilleurs qu'on ne peut le juger au premier
coup-d'oeil; et pour s'en former une juste idée, il faut être instruit
d'une circonstance importante.--Dans toutes les parties de l'Amérique
septentrionale, les denrées de première nécessité sont à meilleur marché
qu'en Angleterre. On n'y éprouve jamais de disette. Dans les années les
plus stériles, la récolte suffit toujours à la consommation des
habitans, et ils ne sont obligés que de diminuer l'exportation de leurs
denrées. Or, le prix du travail en argent y étant plus haut qu'en
Angleterre, et les denrées moins chères, le salaire réel, c'est-à-dire,
la quantité d'objets de première nécessité, que le journalier peut
acheter, en est d'autant plus considérable.
Il me reste à expliquer comment le haut taux des salaires en Amérique
les fera monter en Europe.
Deux causes différentes concourront à produire cet effet. La première
est la plus grande quantité de travail que l'Europe aura à faire, par
rapport à l'existence d'une grande nation de plus dans
I disliked the trade, and had a strong inclination for the sea, but my father declared against it; however, living near the water, I was much in and about it, learnt early to swim well, and to manage boats; and when in a boat or canoe with other boys, I was commonly allowed to govern, especially in any case of difficulty; and upon other occasions I was.Page 9
Without an estate, or any.Page 15
He instantly agreed to it, and I presently found that I could save half what he paid me.Page 24
" He brought me to the Crooked Billet in Water-street.Page 25
I, who stood by and heard all, saw immediately that one of them was a crafty old sophister, and the other a mere novice.Page 48
I met him walking the streets as a common citizen.Page 56
Had I known him before I engaged in this business, probably I never should have done it.Page 62
I soon after obtain'd, thro' my friend Hamilton, the printing of the Newcastle paper money, another profitable jobb as I then thought it; small things appearing great to those in small circumstances; and these, to me, were really great advantages, as they were great encouragements.Page 63
I had hitherto continu'd to board with Godfrey, who lived in part of my house with his wife and children, and had one side of the shop for his glazier's business, tho' he worked little, being always absorbed in his mathematics.Page 66
The affairs of the Revolution occasion'd the interruption.Page 78
Resolution, once become habitual, would keep me firm in my endeavors to obtain all the subsequent virtues; Frugality and Industry freeing me from my remaining debt, and producing affluence and independence, would make more easy the practice of Sincerity and Justice, etc.Page 96
When we next met in the House, he spoke to me (which he had never done before), and with great civility; and he ever after manifested a readiness to serve me on all occasions, so that we became great friends, and our friendship continued to his death.Page 97
It was managed by the constables of the respective wards in turn; the constable warned a number of housekeepers to attend him for the night.Page 115
, "And be it enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that when the said contributors shall have met and chosen their managers and treasurer, and shall have raised by their contributions a capital stock of ----- value (the yearly interest of which is to be applied to the accommodating of the sick poor in the said hospital, free of charge for diet, attendance, advice, and medicines), and shall make the same appear to the satisfaction of the speaker of the Assembly for the time being, that then it shall and may be lawful for the said speaker, and he is hereby required, to sign an order on the provincial treasurer for the payment of two thousand pounds, in two yearly payments, to the treasurer of the said hospital, to be applied to the founding, building, and finishing of the same.Page 131
1 quart best white wine vinegar 6 lbs.Page 135
In one of the last, indeed, which was for granting fifty thousand pounds, his propos'd amendment was only of a single word.Page 138
The next day being fair, we continu'd our march, and arriv'd at the desolated Gnadenhut.Page 147
My answers were to this purpose: that my circumstances, thanks to God, were such as to make proprietary favours unnecessary to me; and that, being a member of the Assembly, I could not possibly accept of any; that, however, I had no personal enmity to the proprietary, and that, whenever the public measures he propos'd should appear to be for the good of the people, no one should espouse and forward them more zealously than myself; my past opposition having been founded on this, that the measures which had been urged were evidently intended to serve the proprietary interest, with great prejudice to that of the people; that I was much obliged to him (the governor) for his professions of regard to me, and that he might rely on every thing in my power to make his administration as easy as possible, hoping at the same time that he had not brought with him the same unfortunate instruction his predecessor had been hamper'd with.Page 153
A wager ensu'd between the two captains, to be decided when there should be sufficient wind.Page 160
1733 Begins to study French, Italian, Spanish, and Latin.