Vie de Benjamin Franklin, écrite par lui-même - Tome II suivie de ses œuvres morales, politiques et littéraires

By Benjamin Franklin

Page 81

six Nations et de leurs confédérés.

Il est dit dans le troisième paragraphe du rapport des lords
commissaires,--«Que le principe du bureau du commerce et des colonies
étoit qu'après le traité de Paris, on devoit rapprocher les limites
occidentales des colonies de l'Amérique septentrionale, de manière que
ces établissemens fussent entièrement à la portée du commerce du
royaume». Nous n'aurons point la hardiesse de contester ce qu'avancent
les lords commissaires: mais nous croyons pouvoir observer que
l'établissement du pays, qui s'étend sur les montagnes d'Allegany et sur
l'Ohio n'étoit point regardé, avant le traité de Paris, ni dans le temps
de la proclamation royale, faite au mois d'octobre 1763, comme hors de
la portée du commerce du royaume. Ce qui le prouve, c'est qu'en 1748, M.
John Hanbury et un assez grand nombre d'autres anglais, présentèrent une
pétition au roi, pour lui demander cinq cent mille acres de terre sur
les montagnes d'Allegany, et sur les bords de l'Ohio; et les lords
commissaires du commerce et des colonies, firent, à ce sujet, un rapport
favorable au conseil-privé de sa majesté. Ils dirent:--«Que
l'établissement du pays situé à l'occident des grandes montagnes, et
centre des possessions anglaises dans ces contrées, seroit conforme aux
intérêts de sa majesté, et accroîtroit les avantages et la sûreté de la
Virginie et des colonies voisines.»

Le 23 février 1748, les mêmes lords commissaires rapportèrent encore au
conseil-privé:--«Qu'ils avoient pleinement exposé la grande utilité et
l'avantage d'étendre nos établissemens au-delà des grandes montagnes; ce
que le conseil avoit approuvé.--Comme ces nouvelles propositions,
ajoutent-ils, rendent probable qu'on établira une plus grande étendue de
terrain, que ne l'annonçoient les premières, nous pensons qu'en
accordant ce que demande la pétition, on se conformera aux intérêts du
roi, et on assurera le bien-être de la Virginie.»

Le 16 mars 1748, le roi donna ordre au gouverneur de la Virginie, de
concéder à M. Hanbury et à ses associés, cinq cent mille acres de terre
sur les montagnes d'Allegany. Ces mêmes concessionnaires font
aujourd'hui partie de la compagnie de M. Walpole.--L'ordre du roi
portoit expressément:--«Ces établissemens seront utiles à nos intérêts
et augmenteront la sécurité de notre dite colonie, ainsi que les
avantages des colonies voisines;--d'autant plus que nos chers sujets se
trouvant par-là, à même de cultiver l'amitié des Indiens qui habitent
ces contrées, et d'étendre leur commerce avec eux, de tels exemples
peuvent exciter les colonies voisines à tourner leurs pensées vers des
projets de la même nature.»

Il nous paroît évident que le bureau du commerce et des colonies, dans
le temps que lord Halifax le présidoit, pensoit que les établissemens
sur les montagnes d'Allegany, n'étoient point contraires aux intérêts

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Text Comparison with Experiments and Observations on Electricity Made at Philadelphia in America

Page 0
Transcriber's note: Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).
Page 8
A person standing on wax, and rubbing the tube, and another person on wax drawing the fire; they will both of them, (provided they do not stand so as to touch one another) appear to be electrised, to a person standing on the floor; that is, he will perceive a spark on approaching each of them with his knuckle.
Page 10
He will continue this motion an hour or more in dry weather.
Page 11
[Illustration] LETTER III.
Page 12
If the phials were both charged through their hooks, the cork, when it has been attracted and repell'd by the one, will not be attracted, but equally repelled by the other.
Page 13
When a bottle is charged in the common way, its _inside_ and _outside_ surfaces stand ready, the one to give fire by the hook, the other to receive it by the coating; the one is full, and ready to throw out, the other empty and extremely hungry; yet as the first will not _give out_, unless the other can at the same instant _receive in_; so neither will the latter receive in, unless the first can at the same instant give out.
Page 15
Then dexterously placing it again between the leaden plates, and compleating a circle between the two surfaces, a violent shock ensued.
Page 16
With thin paste or gum-water, fix the border that is cut off on the inside of the glass, pressing it smooth and close; then fill up the vacancy by gilding the glass well with leaf gold or brass.
Page 18
On the edge of the wheel is a small leaden bullet communicating by a wire with the gilding of the _upper_ surface of the wheel; and about six inches from it is another bullet communicating in like manner with the _under_ surface.
Page 20
27.
Page 21
Thus the stream of a fountain, naturally dense and continual, when electrified, will separate and spread in the form of a brush, every drop endeavouring to recede from every other drop.
Page 22
When the surface of water has the least motion, particles are continually pushed into the situation represented by FIG.
Page 27
As electrified clouds pass over a country, high hills and high trees, lofty towers, spires, masts of ships, chimneys, _&c.
Page 30
From these three things, the extreme subtilty of the electrical matter, the mutual repulsion of its parts, and the strong attraction between them and other matter, arise this effect, that when a quantity of electrical matter, is applied to a mass of common matter, of any bigness or length within our observation (which has not already got its quantity) it is immediately and equally diffused through the whole.
Page 34
Thus a pin held by the head, and the point presented to an electrified body, will draw off its atmosphere at a foot distance; where if the head were presented instead of the point, no such effect would follow.
Page 35
It is cover'd with _Dutch_ emboss'd paper, almost totally gilt.
Page 42
I know it is commonly thought that it easily pervades glass, and the experiment of a feather suspended by a thread in a bottle hermetically sealed, yet moved by bringing a nibbed tube near the outside of the bottle, is alledged to prove it.
Page 43
I feel a want of terms here, and doubt much whether I shall be able to make this part intelligible.
Page 44
But I suppose farther, that in the cooling of the glass, its texture becomes closest in the middle, and forms a kind of partition, in which the pores are so narrow, that the particles of the electrical fluid, which enter both surfaces at the same time, cannot go through, or pass and repass from one surface to the other, and so mix together; yet, though the particles of electrical fluid, imbibed by each surface, cannot themselves pass through to those of the other, their repellency can, and by this means they act on one another.
Page 46
But thus it may: after every stroke, before you pass your hand up to make another, let the second person apply his finger to the wire, take the spark, and then withdraw his finger; and so on till he has drawn a number of sparks; thus will the inner surface be exhausted, and the outer surface charged; then wrap a sheet of gilt paper close round the outer surface, and grasping it in your hand you may receive a shock by applying the finger of the other hand to the wire: for now the vacant pores in the inner surface resume their quantity, and the overcharg'd pores in the outer surface discharge that overplus; the equilibrium being restored through your body, which could not be restored through the glass.